Sunday, May 26, 2013




1.1 Background
Paper titled Global Warming Effects On Life in this world is to know how big the danger is due to global warming. A lot of people who do things that cause global warming, either they do not know, or they know but were left alone.
Therefore, the authors make this paper with the aim of reminding the dangers of global warming arguably will soon reach its peak.
According to the authors, global warming is bad enough for now, and will worsen if there is no effort to be slowed. Whereas in fact we are now actually exacerbate  way to increase the number of motor vehicle gas emissions that emit a lot of CO2, use hairspray containing aerosols, etc..
Author hopes, global warming could be prevented as the maximum possible in a way, one of them maybe we can all reduce the use of motor vehicles and prefer to wear a bike, because in addition to exercise, use the bike also does not cause global warming. But in reality, things like that are very difficult to be realized. Given the importance of our own selfish personal interests of each, for example, do not want to sweat while in school, or be overheated while on the street, even some that might think her hair later broken when riding a bike. Therefore we may have to think deeply and tried a maximum possible to slow global warming, in a way that is not overly complicated, but the means to the earth.
1.2 Problem Formulation

Based on the background above, the problem arises:
1. Is it global warming?
2. What are the dangers of global warming and the impact it?
3. How to control global warming?
1.3 Purpose
1. So that we know what is global warming?
2. So that we can know the dangers and effects due to global warming.
3. We as humans are still needed this earth to think hard how to slow global warming and address the severe damage caused by global warming.

1.4 Benefits of Research
1. For authors
            That we as students learned to overcome bias and knows  global terms and to fulfill the task of Indonesian.
2. For the community
We as the people of Indonesia bias what it can cope with warming global terms and how to handle and warming global terms. So we did not get it from loss warming global terms.
1.5 Method of Data Collection
The author obtained the data as an ingredient in the writing of this scientific work, the authors conducted literature review, distribute questionnaires, study tour to Space agency and browsing the Internet.


2.1. Definition of Global Warming

Global warming is the process of increasing the average temperature of the atmosphere, ocean, and land surface. Global average temperature at the Earth's surface has increased by 0.74 ± 0:18 ° C over the last century. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that, "most of the increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century, most likely caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activity" via the greenhouse effect. These basic conclusions have been endorsed by at least 30 scientific societies and academies, including the national science academies of all G8 countries. However, there are still some scientists who do not agree with some of the conclusions that the IPCC stated.
Climate models referenced by the IPCC project shows global surface temperature will increase by 1.1 to 6.4 ° C (2.0 to 11.5 ° F) between 1990 and 2100. Guesstimate the difference is due to the use of different scenarios on emissions of greenhouse gases in the future, as well as models with differing climate sensitivity. While most research focuses on the period up to 2100, warming and sea level rise is expected to continue for more than a thousand years even if greenhouse gas emission levels have stabilized. This reflects the large heat capacity of the oceans.
Increasing global temperature will cause other changes such as rising sea levels, increased intensity of extreme weather phenomena and changes in the amount and pattern of precipitation. The effects of global warming include its impact on agricultural output, loss of glaciers, and the extinction of various animal species.
Some of the things that scientists are still doubtful about the amount of warming expected in the future, and how warming and the changes that occur will vary from one region to another. Until now there is still political and public debate in the world about what, if any, action should be taken to reduce or reverse further warming or to adapt to the consequences that exist. Most of the governments in the world have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol, aimed at reducing emissions of greenhouse gases.

2.2. Major Causes of Global Warming

1. The greenhouse effect
All energy sources that exist on Earth comes from the Sun. Most of the energy is in the form of short-wave radiation, including visible light. When the energy of the Earth's surface, he turned from the light into heat that warms the Earth. The surface of the Earth, will absorb some of the heat and reflect the rest. Some of this heat as long-wave infrared radiation into space. However, some of the heat remains trapped in the Earth's atmosphere due to accumulated amount of greenhouse gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane into the trap this radiation. These gases absorb and reflect radiation emitted heat the Earth, and consequently will be stored on the surface of the Earth. This happens repeatedly and resulted in an annual average temperature of the earth continues to rise. Gases may act as glass in a greenhouse. With the increasing concentration of these gases in the atmosphere, the more heat is trapped underneath.
Actually, the greenhouse effect is very much needed by all living things on earth, because without it, the planet would be very cool. With an average temperature of 15 ° C (59 ° F), the earth actually has more hot 33 ° C (59 ° F) with the greenhouse effect [3] (without which the earth's temperature is only -18 ° C so that the ice will cover the entire surface Earth). But on the contrary, due to the amount of these gases in the atmosphere has been excessive, a consequence of global warming.
2. Feedback effects
The effects of global warming-causing agents are also influenced by a variety of feedback processes that result. An example is the evaporation of water. In the case of warming due to increasing greenhouse gases such as CO2, warming will initially lead to more water to evaporate into the atmosphere. Because water vapor is itself a greenhouse gas, warming will continue and increase the amount of water vapor in the air until it reaches equilibrium with the water vapor concentration.
3. Solar Radiation
There is a hypothesis that states that the variation of the Sun, with a possibility reinforced by feedback from clouds, can contribute in the current warming. The difference between this mechanism with the warming due to the greenhouse effect is the increased activity of the Sun would heat the stratosphere reverse the greenhouse effect should cool the stratosphere. Cooling of the lower stratosphere has been observed since at least 1960, [8] which would not occur if the solar activity being the main contributor to recent warming. (Depletion of the ozone layer can also provide the cooling effect but the depletion occurred from late 1970's.) Phenomenon solar radiation combined with volcanic activity may have given the warming effect from pre-industrial to 1950, as well as a cooling effect since 1950 . [9] [10]
There is some research that states that the contribution of the Sun may have been overlooked in global warming. Two researchers from Duke University estimated that the Sun may have contributed to the 45-50% increase in global average temperature over the period 1900-2000, and about 25-35% between 1980 and 2000. Stott and his colleagues argued that the climate models are used as guidelines now make exaggerated estimates of the effect of greenhouse gases compared to the influence of the Sun, they also argued that the cooling effects of volcanic dust and sulfate aerosols have also been underestimated. Nevertheless, they conclude that even by increasing the sensitivity of climate to solar influences though, most of the warming that has occurred in recent decades is due to greenhouse gases.

2.3. Impact of Global Warming
Scientists use computer models of temperature, precipitation patterns, and atmospheric circulation to study global warming. Based on these models, scientists have made some estimates of the impact of global warming on weather, sea levels, coastal, agricultural, wildlife and human health.
1. Weather
Scientists predict that during global warming, the northern regions of the Northern Hemisphere (Northern Hemisphere) will heat up more than other areas on Earth. As a result, mountains of ice will melt and the land will shrink. Will be less ice floating on the northern oceans. Areas that previously experienced mild snow, probably will not get it again. In mountainous areas in temperate, snow-covered part will shrink and will melt faster. Growing seasons will be longer in some areas. Temperatures in winter and at night would tend to increase.
Warm regions will become more humid as more water evaporates from the oceans. Scientists are not yet sure whether the moisture will actually increase or decrease the warming even further. This is because water vapor is a greenhouse gas, so its presence will increase the insulation effect of the atmosphere. Storms will become more frequent. In addition, the water will evaporate more quickly than soil. As a result, some areas will become drier than ever. The wind will blow harder and probably with different patterns. Typhoon (hurricane) which draws its strength from the evaporation of water, will be greater. Contrary to the warming that has occurred, some very cold periods may occur. Weather patterns become less predictable and more extreme.
2. Sea levels
Changes in the average height of the sea surface area measured with geologically stable environment. When the atmosphere warms, the surface layer of the oceans will warm, so the volume will expand and raise sea levels. Warming will also melt a lot of ice at the poles, especially around Greenland, which will raise the volume of water in the ocean. Sea levels worldwide have risen 10-25 cm (4-10 inches) during the 20th century, and IPCC scientists predict a further rise of 9-88 cm (4-35 inches) in the 21st century.
Changes in sea levels will greatly affect life in the area. The increase in 100 cm (40 inches) would submerge 6 percent of the Dutch area, 17.5 percent of the Bangladesh, and many of the islands. Erosion of cliffs, beaches and sand dunes will increase. When the high seas to reach the mouth of the river, tidal flooding will increase in the mainland. Rich countries will spend huge amounts of money to protect the coastal area, while poor countries may only be able to evacuate from coastal areas.
Even a small rise in sea level will affect coastal ecosystems. Increase of 50 cm (20 inches) would submerge half of the coastal wetlands in the United States. New marshes will also be formed, but not in urban areas and areas that are already built. The sea level rise will cover most of the Florida Everglades.
3. Agriculture
One might assume that a warmer Earth will produce more food than ever, but it is actually not the same in some places. Southern parts of Canada, for example, may benefit from the higher rainfall and growing season length. On the other hand, semi-arid tropical agriculture in some parts of Africa may not be able to grow. Agricultural areas that use irrigation water from distant mountains may suffer if the snowpack (snow collection) winter, which serves as a natural reservoir, would melt before the peak months of the growing season. Crop and forest insect attack and may experience a more severe disease.
4. Animals and plants
Animals and plants are living things that are difficult to avoid the effects of global warming because most of the land is controlled by humans. In global warming, animals tend to migrate toward the poles and up mountains. Plants will change the direction of growth, looking for new areas as old habitats become too warm. However, human development will deter this movement. Species that migrate north or south that are blocked by the cities or agricultural lands may be dead. Some types of species that are not able to quickly move toward the poles may also be destroyed.
5. Human health
In warmer world, scientists predict that more and more people are affected by the disease or die from heat stress. Outbreaks of diseases commonly found in the tropics, such as diseases caused by mosquitoes and other disease-carrying animals, will widen because they can move into areas that were previously too cold for them. Currently, 45 percent of the world's population live in areas where they can be bitten by a mosquito carrying the malaria parasite; percentage will increase to 60 percent if the temperature increases. Other tropical diseases such as malaria can also be spread, such as dengue fever, yellow fever, and encephalitis. The scientists also predict increased incidence of allergies and respiratory diseases due to warmer air will increase pollutants, mold spores and pollen.

2.4 Control of Global Warming

Total consumption of fossil fuels in the world increased by 1 percent per year. The steps taken or being discussed at this time no one can prevent global warming in the future. The current challenge is to overcome the effects that arise while taking steps to prevent further climate change in the future.
Severe damage can be mitigated in various ways. Coastal areas can be protected by walls and barriers to prevent the entry of sea water. Alternatively, the government can help the population in coastal areas to move to higher ground. Some countries, like the United States, to protect plants and animals while maintaining the corridor (lane) habitat, empty land that has not been built from south to north. Species can move slowly along the corridor leading to cooler habitats.
There are two main approaches to slow the increasing greenhouse gases. First, it prevents the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by storing the gas or its carbon component somewhere else. This method is called carbon sequestration (removing carbon). Second, reduce the production of greenhouse gases.
1. Remove carbon
The easiest way to remove carbon dioxide in the air is to maintain trees and plant more trees. Trees, especially young and growing fast, so much to absorb carbon dioxide, break through photosynthesis and store the carbon in wood. Across the world, the rate of forest encroachment has reached an alarming level. In many areas, plants that grow back a little once because the soil loses its fertility when it is converted to other uses, such as agriculture or residential development. Steps to overcome this is to reforestation increasing role in reducing greenhouse gases.
Carbon dioxide can also be removed directly. How to inject (injecting) the gas into oil wells to bring oil to the surface (see Enhanced Oil Recovery). Injection can also be done to isolate the gas under the ground as in oil wells, coal seams or aquifers. This has been done in one of a drilling rig off the coast of Norway, where the carbon dioxide is brought to the surface with natural gas captured and injected back into the aquifer so it can not return to the surface.
One source contributor of carbon dioxide is the burning of fossil fuels. In the 20th century, gas started to be used as an energy source. Change of trend in the use of fossil fuels is actually indirectly have reduced the amount of carbon dioxide released into the air, as gas releases less carbon dioxide than oil and much less than coal. However, the use of renewable energy and nuclear energy further reduce the release of carbon dioxide into the air. Nuclear energy, although controversial for reasons of safety and hazardous waste, does not emit any carbon dioxide at all.
2. International agreements
International cooperation needed to successfully reduce greenhouse gases. In 1992, at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 150 countries pledged to address the problem of greenhouse gases and agreed to translate this intent in a binding agreement. In 1997 in Japan, 160 countries formulate stronger agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol.
This agreement, which has not been implemented, calls for 38 industrialized countries that hold the greatest percentage in the release of greenhouse gases to cut their emissions to levels 5 percent below 1990 emissions. This reduction must be achieved no later than 2012. At first, the United States volunteered to undertake a more ambitious cuts, promising reduced emissions to 7 percent below 1990 levels; European Union, which wants tougher treaty, committed 8 percent and 6 percent Japanese. The rest of the 122 other countries, mostly developing countries, are not required to commit to emissions reductions.

2.5 Measuring Global Warming

As early as 1896, scientists thought that burning fossil fuels would change the composition of the atmosphere and can increase the average global temperature. This hypothesis was confirmed in 1957 when researchers working on global research programs: the International Geophysical Year, took samples of the atmosphere from the top of Mauna Loa mountain in Hawaii. Measurement results show an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. After that, the composition of the atmosphere continues to be measured carefully. The data collected shows that there is indeed an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Scientists have long suspected that the global climate is getting warmer, but they are not able to provide proper evidence. The temperature continued to vary over time and from one location to another. It will take many years of climate observations to obtain data that showed a trend (trend) is clear. Records in the late 1980s rather shows the warming trend, but these statistics were few and unreliable. Weather stations at first, is located close to urban areas so that the temperature measurement will be affected by the heat emitted by buildings and vehicles and also heat stored by the building materials and road. Since 1957, the data obtained from reliable weather station (located away from urban areas), as well as from satellites. These data provide a more accurate measurement, especially at 70 percent of the planet's surface is covered oceans. Data that more accurately shows that the warming trend of the Earth's surface is really happening. If seen in the late 20th century, noted that the ten warmest years over the last hundred years occurred after 1980, and the three hottest years occurred after 1990, with 1998 being the hottest.
In a report issued in 2001, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that global air temperatures have risen 0.6 degrees Celsius (1 degree Fahrenheit) since 1861. The panel agreed that the warming is primarily caused by human activities that add greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. IPCC predicts an increase in global average temperatures will rise 1.1 to 6.4 ° C (2.0 to 11.5 ° F) between 1990 and 2100.
As a result, there will be dramatic climate change. Although the actual events of climate change has happened several times throughout Earth's history, humans will face this problem with a very large population risk.



3.1. Conclusion

Actually that global warming has occurred since 1861, but has not been severe as it is now. It showed her no temperature increase from year to year, so there's most likely global warming will get worse in the future.
3.2 Advice
As we know, until now no one can prevent global warming, but we as the younger generation should strive to reduce the course of global warming. With the very small things, such as always using paper on both sides, turn off the faucet while brushing teeth, using the return envelope ex, use rechargeable batteries, etc..

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