AN ANALHYSIS OF EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF NOVEL SANG PEMIMPI BY ANDREA HIRAT PUBLISHED IN 2008
1.1. Background of the Study
Literature is a medium through which a person can convey his or her ideas or protest against different norms of society. Those works that deal with a normal issue are particularly purpose in mind. An author can communicate with the readers of a literary work if they can understand what the author wants to send. The author expresses his or her feeling, thought, ideas, or arguments about the social issues by writing those issues in a form of literary work.
Literary work has two main elements, which can be analyzed. They are intrinsic elements or objective approach and extrinsic elements. Intrinsic element (objective element) are elements of literary work that build up the structure of literary work it self. Plot, character, setting, theme, point of view, style and atmosphere are the examples of the intrinsic elements. Sukada (1987: 47) stated that intrinsic elements are the whole elements which build up a literary work.
Literature is human personal expression especially thought, feeling, enthusiasm, and concept in a certain description. Which can as a communication media (Sumarjo and Saini, 1991: 3).
Language is very artistic medium or material of all literary. It is used to express subject matter. Literary works are differently from the language is used everyday. Literary is one of the element of culture is used to express human thought and ide
1.2. Statement of the problem
In doing the research, the writer states the problem she is going to investigate. So, the writer put one question to explain the content of discussion later.
· What are the educational values in “Sang Pemimpi” a novel by Andrea Hirata published in 2008?
1.3. Purpose of the Study
Based on statement before, the purposes of this analysis are:
1. To identify and interpret the educational values in novel Sang pemimpi
2. To get the point of the content of the story relating to the educational values of the novel.
1.4. Scope of the Study
In order to avoid misinterpreting and misunderstanding for the discussion because of the broadness of the problem, the writer limits the scope of this investigation only on discussing of educational values in “Sang Pemimpi” by Andrea Hirata.
1.5. Significances of the Study
a. Theoretical significance
The final result of this study is expected to be real given positive contribution especially for those who are getting involved in the implementation of teaching and learning literature.
b. Practical significance
The result of this study will be useful for:
1. To inform the reader that literature has important rule in study where there are some aspects and values can be as guidance for life.
2. To locate out the way in determining the aspects and values in literary work.
1.6. Definition of Key Terms
In order to avoid misunderstanding and interpreting the meaning of the term used in the analysis, the writer considered worthwhile to elaborate and define the term which are relevant to this analysis.
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
2.1. Biography of the Author
Andrea Hirata was born on 24 October. He is a novelist of Indonesia who comes from Belitong Island Bangka Belitung. An introduction to a movie and a tetra-logy novel by Andrea Hirata: SANG PEMIMPI. Secondly, Sang Pemimpi is a novel, telling us about Ikal and his brother struggling to reach their dream after they graduate from SD.
Titles of those novels are:
Book 1: Laskar Pelangi (Rainbow's Army)
Book 2: Sang Pemimpi (The Dreamer)
Book 3: Edensor (Edensor)
Book 4: Maryamah Karpov (Maryamah Karpov) -not yet published-
Even though, his study major is Economy, but he really delights science, physic, chemistry, biology, astronomy, and certainly literature. Andrea really made identical himself as an academies and backpacker. Andre is going to get his other dream to live in Key Gompa, the tallest village of the world in Himalaya.
Andrea has an education of economy at Indonesia University. He got a scholarship from Europe to study Master of Science at University’ de Paris, Sorbonne, French and Sheffield Halam University, United Kingdom. His thesis In Economic telecommunication got award from both university and he graduated with cumlaude. This thesis has to be changed into Indesian and it is the first book of Economic theory telecommunication that is written in Indonesian. That book has been turn as scientific reference. And now Andre Hirata lives in Bandung and work at PT. Telkom Centre.
Literature is often said to be a school of life in that the authors tend to comment on the conduct of society and individuals in society. They either point out what they see as important issues in human affairs or propose ideal alternative to the way thing actually are the custom and more of particular social group or individuals their aspirations and values explored and exposed (Taylor, 1981:12)
Novel is a prose narrative fiction. Taylor, (1981 : 46) stated that a prose works of quite some length and complexity which attempts to reflect and express something of the quality or value of human experience or conduct.
A novel is almost the same as a short story; they both are included in prose narrative fictions that have similarity in the intrinsic element such as plot, character, theme, setting etc.
2.3. Educational Values
Living together in group not only can be found in human being, but also be found in animal. But the difference is just the human being has a rule, norms, and life values.
Values can be separated from education, because value is closely related to the good or bad case. Things depend on values implied in it.
Lunberg (1992: 182) says, something contains values if only someone do something according to the values it self understood, and have some belongings it.
There are many interpretations about value. value is something which can create attention or as subject of attention. Other opinion said that value is something that is more attended. Values means the ability that can give prosperity. In general, values means “A worth” or some kinds of characteristic, which is owned by something. Then in connection with this, value is said to be the beliefed of activity of any object, which causes it to be of interest to an individual or group.
Ki Hajar Dewantara identifies education as an effort to improve the development of good manner and intellect. In the narrower sense “education” is restricted to the function of community which consist in passing on its tradition, is background, and its outlook to the member of the rising generation.
In addition, Ki Hajar Dewantara stated the education defined as an effort to improve the development of advance in perfecting the life as “Life in society” (Ki Hajar Dewantara, 1962: 14).
2.4. Element of the novel
Theme is an idea of a story. At the time author writes a story, he does not only want to tell a story, but also want to say something to his readers. It can be a social life problem, his way of life, or his comment toward this life etc.
According to (Stanton, 1965: 88) and (Kenny, 1966: 20) theme is meaning that contained in a story. Authors use dialogue of character, their ways of thinking, feeling, events, and setting to clarify the theme. Theme is idea of a story. At the time author writes a story, he does not only want to tell a story, but also want to say something to his readers. Social life problem, his way of life, or his comment toward life, so forth.
Plot is a series of events that is tied based on the relation of its creation in chronological events and they are related to another based on the cause – effect from the beginning of the story until the end. The events in the story are not independent, but they are related to one another. So, one event will influence the others.
According to Forster, plot is events in the story that has pressure to causal relationship. According to Stanton (1965: 14) the storycontains the sequence of the events but every events are connected by causal relationship, one event cause or caused to the other events.
According to Milan (1987: 419), there are six steps of plot, they are:
Exposition is the way on which the author introduces the main characters and orients the reader to the setting, such as time and place.
An exposition is just an explanation of some sort of material that may be difficult to explain. It is also described as the act of exposing. Exposition of a novel is a statement or rhetorical discourse intended to give information about or an explanation of difficult material. Setting, characters, main conflicts are introduced to the reader; this is the beginning of a novel or story and may be short or long, but is always flat (little action or emotion).
b. Rising Action
Rising action is the series of events that lead to the climax of the story usually the conflicts or struggles of the protagonist. The rising action’s purpose is usually to build suspense all the way up the climactic.
Conflict has become a broad term in literary works and it now includes almost any problem the protagonist may have. It can encompass a struggle between the protagonist and another creature, obstacles society puts in the protagonist’s way, a battle against nature, and a mystery unravelled, or internal and emotional issues being solved.
Climax is the high point of a story in which the major conflicts erupt in some kind of final showdown (fight, argument, violent or physical action, very tense emotional moment) at the end of the climax, the ‘winner’ will be clear (there is not always a winner!).
e. Falling Action
After the climax, all events leading to the resolution are the falling action. Characters sort out complications and display their emotions following the climax, all of them guiding the reader to the resolution.
Resolution is the part in the story where the nail biting plot, mystery, or situation in the book is finally solved and the climax of the story is brought to an ending.
Where everything ends; the reader may have some sense of “closure” or maybe asked to think about what might come next; in fairy tales, the Happy Ending; in some novels, you will read about the characters many years later.
Character is a person in a story or a play (Duffy and Pettit, 1953: 24). Character development involves both physical description and classification of the mental and spiritual qualities of the person.
The general character in a story, whether he is sympatric or an unsymphatic person, is related to the protagonist, they forced arrayed against him, whether person or things, they are the antagonist (Perrine, 1978: 43).
a. The Major or Main Character
The major characters play an important role in the story or the novel. The major characters can further be analyzed into three groups they are as follows: (1) protagonist (2) antagonist (3) companion.
b. Minor Character
Minor character or we often called supporter of the drama, novel and they do not have an important role.
According to Hudson (1960: 158), setting is a whole environment of the story, including the customs and tradition, habits, and the character’s way of life.
Setting is place; time and social condition that become place for figures and affected an event (B. Nurgiyantoro, 2000: 75) setting will influence the action and way of thought of figures.
Setting or the time and place of the action in a story have a definite impact on the character development and plot. The setting is often found in the exposition of the plot and readily establishes time and place. Frequently it plays an important role in the conflict giving credence to the rising action as a climax or turning point is approached.
We can conclude that setting is dealing with situation where and when events happen toward character. If the setting of the story can be changed by any place without changing or influencing the character and theme, the theme is not integral
5. Point Of Views
Point of view is a term which refers to the relationship between story teller, the story and the reader (Stone, 1983: 11).
Point of view is a term in the analysis and criticism of fiction. Point of view is way and or opinion used by the author as medium to present figures, action, setting and some events that make a story in fiction work to reader (Abrams 1981: 142).
Atmosphere refers to the mood of the story that is reflected by setting or the implication of its meaning in order to build the mood of the story. To construct the mood of the story such as plot, a good characterization right setting, etc. all elements that must integrate in atmosphere can be built through protagonist. And it is closely related to them. It can not exactly build the theme of story.
3.1. Research Methodology
Literary in this case the research is an effort of searching knowledge and defining it continuously, carefully toward literary cases. It means that the literary research is a science that has obvious object, method and approach. Literary research as a scientific activity must be supported by appropriate method.
Method is a means of procedure especially a regular and systematic way of completing anything (The American Heritage Dictionary, Volume fourth: 826) additionally according to Longman dictionary, of contemporary English method is way of doing something (Quirk, 1987: 681). Method also means that is a way of work in understanding the object and the objective of the science involved with.
The qualitative method has five characteristics, namely:
a. Natural setting is data resources and researcher of a key instrument
b. The qualitative method descriptively, means that the data is explained in it.
c. The form of word or picture is not statistic.
d. The qualitative is considered as more important to process that result.
3.2. Data Sources
Data sources refer to certain books. Novel and many others formin which the data are taken. The data source in this study is the novel “sang Pemimpi” by Andrea Hirata. The analysis will be focused on the Educational values of the novel.
3.3. Method of Collecting The Data.
The writing of this proposal is entirely done though library research. The data are collected from libraries in some places where the related books are available: to gain more detailed information to support the content of this proposal.
As stated previously, the data needed in this study are all expressions, phrases and statements in the novel. The data that are collected from the source is especially the novel “Sang Pemimpi”.
3.4. Method of Analyzing The Data
As soon as the significant data are collected the writer comes to analyze about the educational values of”Sang Pemimpi” by Andrea Hirata.
Secondly, the writer read the novel to find some quotation to the object of the study, educational values, and then the writer tries to interpret and explain it. At last the writer put it in the proposal as the result of the research.
The data is then presented in a descriptive method that is by describing the fact about the novel focusing on those questioned values.
The description is then followed by interpretation and analysis making use the concepts related to literature and education values.
FINDING AND DISCUSSION
The Synopsis of “Sang Pemimpi”, English Version
The novel ’’Sang Pemimpi’’ telling about the life history of the three Melayu’s son Belitong, namely; Ikal, Arai, and Jimbron who is completed with the hindrances, sacrifices, and the zig zag way of life that is so interesting that we will believe there is a power of love, trust to the power of the dream and Almigthy of Allah. Ikal, Arai, and Jimbron sturuggle for obtaining the knowledge at SMA Negeri Bukan Main that is too far from their village. They live at one of the boarding home at the Traditional market Magai Pulau Belitong working as the porter for continuing their study.
There was Mr. Balia whose kind and wise, he is an establisher and teacher of literature at SMA Negeri Bukan Main, also in the novel there was Mr. Mustar is very terrible and the students afraid of him, he is changed to be the rude man because his beloved son is unaccepted at the school his duty lasting. Because, the Final score of his son less than 0.25 from the minimum standard. Imagine that 0.25 is the requirement 42, the final score of his son is 41.75.
Ikal, Arai, and Jimbron had ever been got punishment by Mr. Mustar because of they have wacthed the Film at the movie and this is prohibition for the students at SMA Negeri Bukan Main. In the monday morning ceremony they row is separated, and they got puinishment acting in the yard of school and clean the Toilet.
Ikal and Arai are blood brother. Arai’s grandmother is young sister of Ikal’s grandfather from mother side, when Arai at the first grade of secondary school his mother died and also his father died when he was at the third grade so that in Melayu village he is called by Simpai Keramat. While, Jimbron is stuttering in speaking because in the past he hanging around with his father suddenly his father got cardiac arrest and he runs a way picked up his father panicly. He is so ambitious to ride the horse, some kinds of the horse he is familiar with.
Ikal’s father works in PN Timah Belitong, his father is calmly man but his love is so great, he takes bicycle to Magai is about 30 kilometer only for having Ikal’s Raport his beloved son at SMAN Bukan Main. And Ikal’s mother prepares his father Safari clothes by turn on the burning of the iron and spraying the Pandan’s Water and Kenanga flower that was submerge lastnight.
when learning at the yard of school Mr.Mustar said: ’’explore the glamoruous of Europe up to the Africa whose excotic. Finding out the culture diamond until Prance. Steping your feed on the Holly Altar of Almamter is excellent at Sorbonne. Following up the trace of Sartre, Louis Pastour, Montesquiou, Voltaire. There the people studying the science, literature, and arts until changed the civilization. Arai and Ikal do not flicker when Mr. Balia shows the picture that seems a painter behind of the canvas stand up greatly at Eiffel tower who bow commanding the Siene river to slice to be the two pairs exactly at his foots.
At that moment they firmed the great expectation through the statement ambitiously: our ambition is we intend to go to France for studying. Wish to take on the holy altar of Sourbonne almamater, and wanted to explore the Europe up to the Africa.
”We will never come first before the fortune!’’ Arai scream..
”We will go to France for studying, explore the Europe up to the Arfica! Whatever will happen!”
The life’s struggle must be limited and many hindrances, by end Ikal and Arai are accepted for studying at Universite de Paris, Sorbonne, France. While, Jimbron is still at Belitong feeding the horse of Capo.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
After reading and analyzing the novel of “Sang Pemimpi” by Andrea Hirata. It can be concluded as a good novel, because it has many values, which can be applied in our daily life activities especially educational values.
The educational values which the novel contains include to the social and religion aspect. Here the novel tell how important for learn from the former, take all of our experience as a school of life, spent our life for goodness and create peace, harmony life and help each other.The novel ask the readers to pay attention to the religion aspect that make our life guide, it gives an advice that never ever give up our destiny, event it very poor and didn’t have anything in life. Because it is just to make ourselves die. So we have to try hard and be patient to get our dream, and believe that Allah SWT always help us whatever we want.
The writer had already concluded that the education value that can be followed by everyone as the values in running life which is can be found in a novel Sang Pemimpi. In order that to complete the analysis of this study the writer would like to present such a kind of suggestion as follows:
1. To English Teacher
Ø In order to enhance the interest of the students in reading a literary work, the teacher need to explain the main surplus in reading a novel as the life needed in term of the novel can be the guidance in obtaining any kinds of the value that may be developed by the student in daily life activities.
Ø The teacher should use some strategy in teaching literary work as one of the lesson at School I order that the students will not feel bored in reading it.
2. To the other researcher
Ø It is suggested that, in other study at the same field should investigated the one important question regarding to any function of the values that we can obtain in reading novel.
Ø Finally, do not attempt to copy this thesis as the next generation of this title but find out the other title that is different from the writers’ thesis.
3. To the students / readers
Ø This suggestion is delivering to the students or the reader of this thesis, perhaps need to read a lot about the literary work such a kind of novel, where in the novel we can obtain some educational values or moral teaching as the basis in running life and limit our behavior in doing something good or bad. Thus, we will be able to differentiate the good way or the wrong one from the values that have been got from read the novel, and also it can be implemented into real life for having interaction to each other. Therefore, it is fun to reach the safety and happiness.
Abrams, M.H. 1981. A Glossary of A Literary Term 4thEd. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Aminuddin. 1990. Pengantar Apresiasi Karya Sastra. Bandung: Sinar Baru.
Atar Semi. 1993. Metode penelitian sastra. Bandung: PT. Angkasa.
Brown. 2003. The Davinci Code. New York: Doubleday
Duffy, Charles and Henry Petit, 1953. A Dictionary of Literary Term. Usa: Brown Book Company.
Forster. 1970.Modern novelist. Houndmills; Macmillan.
Hirata, Andrea. 2008. Sang Pemimpi. Bandung: PT. Bentang Pustaka.
Hudson and Kenny. 1960. A Multicultural literature. New York: Brown Book Company.
Ki Hajar Dewantara. 1962. Analisis Unsur Intrinsik dan Ekstrinsik Dalam Karya Sastra, Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
Koentjaraningrat. 1977. Method of Social Research. Bowra: Rineka Cipta.
Lunberg. 1992. The rich and the super-rich. New York: Lyle Stuart.
Milan. 1986. The Art of the Novel. French: L’art du Roman.
Nurgiyantoro, B. 2000. Teori Pengkajian Fiksi. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada Press.
Perrine, Laurence.1987. The Structure of Literature.Harcourt: Brace and World Press.
Quirk.R. 1987. Longman dictionary of contemporary English. London: Longman.
Setianingsih, Nani. 2003. A Paper “The Intrinsic Analysis to the Novel A Murder Is Announced by Agatha Christie.Sumedang: Foreign School Language.
Stanton, Edwin McMasters. 1965. In dictionary of American Biography. New York: Doubleday
Taylor. 1981. The Historical Evidence for the virgin Birth. London: At the Clarendon Press.
Twain, Mark. 1997. “Tom Sawyer.” Bridlington: Peter Haddock Ltd.