Thursday, March 7, 2013

KUMPULAN CONTOH KARYA ILMIAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG ROKOK

THE EFFECT OF SMOKING ON HEALTH IN THE COMMUNITY

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION



A. Background
As we know cigarettes are not familiar we hear and see, now every store or shop already peddle copies of cigarettes, it is very influential on public health because smoking can cause cancer, heart attacks, hypertension, pregnancy and fetal disorders.
In addition, it can also damage levels - levels of national identity.
Now many students who consume cigarettes. This all proves that smoking was rampant in the community. Consuming cigarettes can also cause damage to community mental.

B. Formulation of the problem

1. What is behind the use of cigarettes?
2. What about the effect of smoking in the community?
3. How tobacco use prevention efforts in the community?

C. The purpose of research
1. To know the background of the people using cigarettes.
2. To determine the effect of smoking in the community.
3. To find smoking prevention efforts in the community.

D. Benefits of the research
To determine the positive and negative effects to smoking and knowing the ins - outs cigarettes.

E. Systematics Writing
Systematics of writing this paper is as follows.
Chapter I is an introductory chapter that reveals the background, problem statement, objectives, benefits of systematic research and writing.
Chapter II is a literature review chapter and the conceptual framework that describes the literature review and conceptual framework.
Chapter III is writing the methodology chapter that describes the data sources, data collection methods.
Chapter IV is a discussion of the chapter that contains the drug among teenagers.
Chapter V is a concluding chapter contains conclusions and suggestions.



CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW AND FRAMEWORK FOR THOUGHT


A. Literature Review
1. Understanding Smoking / Tobacco
According to Drs. Yayan Suherian in sociology book page 69 says that tobacco contains nicotine poison loud, thankfully disappeared nicotine tobacco burn ointment at the nerve can cause addiction. substances contained in tobacco can cause lung cancer why the teenagers had to be rescued from danger Narcotics! Parents are not always strong and alive.
The old man when already aged 55 years and above, strength is not strong anymore to work. Age 55 years for civil servants have started and should be replaced with a simple force. role of youth must prepare to become a great man and a tough-minded difficulties - difficulties and able to cope.
Smoking is a cylinder of paper length sized between 70 to 120 mm (varies by country) with a diameter of 10 mm containing tobacco leaves that have been  burned at one end and allowed to smolder so that the smoke can be inhaled through the mouth at the other end .
Cigarettes are usually sold in a box shaped parcel or package of paper that can be incorporated easily into a pocket. In recent years, these packs are also generally accompanied by health messages that warn smokers of the health impacts that may result from smoking, such as lung cancer or heart attack (even though in reality it is just a decoration, it is seldom obeyed).
People in the world who smoke for the first time is the Indian tribes in the United States, for ritual purposes such as worshiping god or  16th century, when Europeans discovered America, some of the European explorers were involved try smoking cigarettes and then bring Eropa. tobacco smoking began to appear in the nobility Eropa.Tapi unlike the Indians who smoked for ritual purposes, in Europe people smoke just for fun-mata.Abad 17 Spanish traders go to Turkey and then started smoking get in Islamic countries.
There has been much research which proves that smoking is addictive, as well as cause many types of cancer, heart disease, respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease, adverse effects to the birth, and emphysema.
Smoking can be divided into several types. This distinction is based on cigarette packaging materials, raw materials or contents of cigarettes, cigarette making process, and the use of filters on cigarettes.
Cigarette based material.
• klobot: cigarette packaging materials such as corn leaves.
• Kawung: cigarette packaging materials such as palm leaves.
• Cigarettes: that cigarette packaging materials such as paper.
• Cigars: cigarette packaging material in the form of leaf tobacco.
Cigarette based raw materials or content.
• Cigarette White: raw tobacco or tobacco content was given the sauce to get the effect of a particular flavor and aroma.
• Cigarettes: cigarettes raw materials or contents of tobacco leaf and clove with sauce to get the effect of a particular flavor and aroma.
• Smoking Klembak: cigarette raw materials or contents of tobacco leaves, cloves and incense were dressing to get the effect of a particular flavor and aroma.
Smoking by the manufacturing process.
• Hand Kretek cigarettes (SKT): cigarettes are made by caradigiling or rolled by hand or using simple tools.
• Kretek Cigarette Machine (SKM): the cigarette manufacturing process uses the machine. Simply put, cigarette materials incorporated into the cigarette making machine. The resulting output engines cigarette maker in the form of cigarette sticks. Currently, cigarette making machine has been able to produce an output of about six thousand to eight thousand cigarettes a minute. Cigarette making machine, usually, associated with cigarette wrapping machine so that the resulting output is no longer in the form of cigarettes, but has been in the form of bullion pack. There is also a cigarette wrapping machine is able to produce output in the form of cigarettes in the press, the press contains 10 packs. Unfortunately, it has not found a machine capable of generating SKT because there are differences in the diameter of the base to the tip diameter SKT. At SKM, girth circumference of the base of the cigarette and the end rokoksama.
Kretek cigarettes machine itself can be categorized into two sections:
1. Kretek Cigarettes Full Flavor Machine (SKM FF): cigarettes are in the process of making a distinctive aroma added. Example: Gudang Garam International Filter, Djarum Super, etc..
2. Kretek cigarettes Mild Light Machine (SKM LM): cigarette machine that uses tar and nicotine levels. Smoking is rarely used type of flavor. Example: A Mild, Clas Mild, Star Mild, U Mild, LA Light, Surya Slim, etc..
Based on the use of filter cigarettes.
• Cigarette Filter (RF): cigarettes are at the base there is a cork.
• Smoking Non Filter (RNF): cigarettes are at the base there is no cork.
Free Life Without Smoking
Most smokers, who rarely smoke, or who can spend 2 pack of cigarettes every day, want to stop  know that in addition to a delicious taste of cigarettes, the energy that arises after smoking, and feeling comfortable after inhaling the air, there is a desire to stop for fear of the dangers of smoking or anything else.
Fear of getting cancer later in life, increased cholesterol, irregular heartbeat, ulcer disease, until the problem looks like yellow teeth and bad breath and clothes smell of tobacco for smoking  the manifold. There are smoking because they want to get a fresh effects, or because of habit, such as happy, angry, anxious that trigger the desire to smoke, or because the body is asking for a minimal dose of nicotine similar to the previous day.
If asked, nearly all smokers want this is not the case  desire to smoke can vary, and the sudden arrival.
At that time, those who had stopped smoking for 3 months even get back to smoking

2. Health

According to Drs. Bambang said in the dictionary Marhijanto BHS. Indonesian health is a word that means the state agency did not immediately feel  Clean and Healthy Life, which became the basis of the health needs of the community, one aspect is the "no family members who smoke." While PHBs should be my duty and the cadres health to socialize.
Every time inhaling cigarette smoke, whether intentionally or not, is also sucking more than 4,000 kinds of toxins! Therefore, similar to smoke toxins before entering into the oral cavity and lungs of course. Smoking detrimental to health, the fact is we can not  disease has proven to be due to poor smoke, either directly or indirectly smoking is not only detrimental to the smoker, but also for those around him.
Currently the number of smokers, especially adolescent smokers continue to grow, particularly in countries  is a challenge for efforts to improve public health. Even the world health organization (WHO) has warned that in the decade from 2020 to 2030 tobacco will kill 10 million people per year, 70% of which occur in developing countries.
Through resolution 1983, the World Health Organization (WHO) has set May 31 as World Tobacco Free Day every  smoking on health has been researched and proven by many orang.Efek adverse effects of smoking were already clearly known. Many studies have shown that smoking increases the risk of heart disease and variousblood vessel disorders, lung cancer, oral cancer, laryngeal cancer, cancer osefagus, bronchitis, high blood pressure, impotence, and pregnancy disorders and defects in the fetus .
Recent research also shows the dangers of secondhand-smoke, the smoke inhaled by the non-smokers around smokers, or commonly referred to as passive smokers.
CHEMICALS
Smoking would not be separated from raw material production, ie tobacco. In Indonesia, tobacco plus cloves and other ingredients are mixed to make cigarettes. In addition to cigarettes, tobacco can also be used as a hand-rolled cigarette, cigarettes, cigars, cigarettes, pipes, and smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco or chewing tobacco).
Gaseous components of cigarette smoke is carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrocyanic acid, nitrogen oxides, and formaldehyde. Particles in the form of tar, indole, nicotine, karbarzol, and kresol.Zat substances are toxic, irritating, and cause cancer (carcinogens).
Nicotine
Substances most frequently discussed and researched people, poison the body's nerves, increase blood pressure, cause constriction of peripheral blood vessels, and cause addiction and dependence onKadar 4-6 mg of nicotine inhaled by adults every day are able to make people addicted. In the United States, cigarette products on the market have levels of 8-10 mg of nicotine per cigarette, while in Indonesia, yield 17 mg of nicotine per cigarette.
LEAD (Pb)
Lead produced by a cigarette as much as 0.5 ug. A pack of cigarettes (20 cigarettes contents) which sucked out in one day  10 ug. While the danger threshold of lead that enters the body is 20 mcg per day. You can imagine, when a heavy smoker smoked an average of two packs of cigarettes per day, how many of these harmful substances into the body!
GAS carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon monoxide has a strong tendency to bind to hemoglobin in red blood cells. Supposedly, this hemoglobin binds with oxygen which is essential for respiration of body cells, but because the CO gas is stronger than oxygen, the CO gas is captured place "on the side" hemoglobin. Be, hemoglobin coupled with CO gas. CO gas levels in the blood of non-smokers of less than 1 percent, while in the blood of smokers achieving 4-15 percent. Many times over!
TAR
Tar is a collection of thousands of chemicals in the solid component of cigarette smoke, and is a carcinogen. At the time of cigarettes smoked, the tar into the oral cavity as a dense vapor. Once cool, will become solid and form a brown precipitate on the surface of the tooth, respiratory tract, and lungs. The deposition was varied between 3-40 mg per cigarette, while the levels of tar in cigarettes range from 24-45 mg.
IMPACT OF THE LUNGS
Smoking can cause changes in the structure and function of the airways and lung tissue paru.Pada large airways, mucous cells enlarge (hypertrophy) and multiply mucus glands (hyperplasia). At the small airways, mild inflammation occurs due to narrowing and buildup cells increasedlung tissue, an increase in the number of inflammatory cells and damage to the alveoli.
Due to changes in airway anatomy, the smoker will arise changes in lung function with all sorts of clinical symptoms. This became the main basis of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (PPOM). Said smoking is a major cause of PPOM, including pulmonary emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma.
The relationship between smoking and lung cancer has been investigated in the last 4-5 decades  close relationship between smoking, particularly cigarettes, the lung cancer incidence nothing explicitly states that smoking as a major cause of lung cancer
lung.
Cigarette smoke particles, such benzopiren, dibenzopiren, and urethane, known as a carcinogen. Tar is also associated with risk of cancer. Compared with nonsmokers, the possibility arises of lung cancer in smokers reach 10-30 times more often.
IMPACT ON HEART
Many studies have shown a link smoking with coronary heart disease (CHD). Of the 11 million deaths a year in industrialized countries, the WHO reports that more than half (6 million) due to impaired blood circulation, in which 2.5 million were coronary heart disease and 1.5 million are stroke. MOH survey in 1986 and 1992, gaining an increase in deaths from heart disease of 9.7 percent (ranked third) to 16 percent (ranked first).
Smoking becomes a major factor causing cardiovascular disease  just cause coronary heart disease, smoking is also bad for the brain and the peripheral blood vessels.
Smokers smoke exhaled smoke can be divided into primary (main stream smoke) and the smoke side (side stream smoke). The main smoke is tobacco smoke that is inhaled directly by smokers, while the addition of smoke is tobacco smoke that spread into the air, to be inhaled by others or passive smokers.
It has been found 4,000 species of chemicals in cigarettes, with 40 types of which are carcinogenic (can cause cancer), which is more toxic material found on the side of smoke such as carbon monoxide (CO) 5 times more common in addition to smoke than The main smoke, benzopiren 3 times, and ammonia 50 times. These materials can last up to several hours in a room after smoking stops.
Generally, the focus of research aimed at the role of nicotine and carbon monoxide. Both of these materials, in addition to increased oxygen demand, also interfere with the oxygen supply to the heart muscle (myocardial) to the detriment of myocardial work.
Nicotine interfere with the sympathetic nervous system due to increased oxygen demand miokard. addictive smoking, nicotine also stimulates the release of adrenaline, increased heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption of the heart, and cause heart .Nikotin rhythm disturbances also affect the nerves, brain, and many parts of the body .Nikotin activate platelet adhesion with consequent emergence of platelets (clotting) to blood vessel walls.
Carbon monoxide cause desaturation of hemoglobin, reducing the oxygen directly to tissues throughout the body including infarction. CO took the place of oxygen in hemoglobin, interfering with the release of oxygen, and accelerated atherosclerosis (calcification / thickening of blood vessel walls). Thus, CO lowered physical exercise capacity, increased blood viscosity, making it easier for blood clotting.
Nicotine, CO, and other substances in cigarette smoke proved damaging endothelial (blood vessel wall), and facilitate the emergence of blood clots. In addition, cigarette smoke affect the lipid profile. Compared with nonsmokers, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride blood of smokers is higher, whereas HDL cholesterol lower.

B. Framework
1. Framework Writer
Cigarettes are tobacco contains nicotine poison hard, luckily only lost nicotine in tobacco can cause nerve burn ointment addiction. TIR is a substance contained in tobacco can cause lung cancer - lung.
Health in a state not feel any fresh body. Therefore, the suspect posed no effect of smoking on the health of students.
Health is a major factor supporting a physical fitness but because of smoking resulted in lower body condition.




CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


A. Research Sites
In writing this study, the authors conducted a study on the existing cigarette users was held on January 22, 2011 until February 1, 2011.

B. Population and Sample
The population is a group of elements that  in this study were adolescents.
While the sample is a subset of the population that is expected to represent the population  samples in this study are some of the people in the city of ina
The technique of sampling in this study is the systematic sampling where sampling by the order of the members of the population have to be numbered.

C. Types and Sources of Data

1. Type of Data
a. Data kuantatif the processing of data in the form of numbers or numbers or numerical data in order to produce a solid interpretation.
b. Qualitative data is data obtained in the form of statements or writings were taken into consideration in obtaining any conclusions to clarify the responses in the form of problem solving.
2. Data Sources
a. Primary data is the data obtained through the research results directly to the object studied. The data obtained through interviews, observations, and results of the questionnaire respondents. Respondents' answers were scored and tabulated later.
b. Secondary data is data obtained from various sources, including from the documentation / writing (books, reports, scientific publications and research results) and from the information the parties relating to the investigational study.

D. Data Collection Methods
Data collection methods used in this paper are as follows:
1. Research literature, is a method of data collection by a review of the literature from a variety of scientific literature, magazines, and books concerning theories relevant to the issues discussed.
2. Field research, is a method of data collection is done on site (research object) directly which consists of:
a. Observations, which make observations directly to the public, especially young cigarette users.
b. Questionnaire, to know more clear public understanding of the use of cigarettes.

E. Research Variables
Based on the subject matter and hypotheses have been put forward, the variables that will be examined in this study are:
a. The independent variables (independent variables) are denoted by (x) is a factor that affects the dependent variable. The independent variable in this case is a cigarette.
b. Dependent variable (the dependent variable) are denoted by (Y) is a variable that is affected by the independent variable. In this case the dependent variable is the community.

F. Research Instrument

The research instrument used is a research instrument developed by Dessy Sutianto (2007) which consists of 10 questions questionnaire according to the study variablest to be distributed to respondents who are part of the members t contains questions related to the title  papers used for measuring this questionnaire is  scale method is a method of scaling, using the statement as the basis for determining the distribution of responsesUntuk scaling this method respondents were asked to indicate the suitability or appropriateness of the content of the question in 4 categories namely answers to the following scale.
a. Scale of 1 = very low
b. Scale 2 = low
c. Scale 3 = Good
d. Scale 4 = very good
To anticipate that the answer obtained is the real answer for sure or not in doubt, the authors negate the answer choices in doubt (Undecided). This is consistent with the statement in Sutianto Sutrisno Hadi (2007). Reasons to abolish hesitant answers are: 1) Category Undecided has a double meaning. It could mean not biased member answers, neutral or undecided-ragu.Kategori with double meanings (multi intertable) is expected in the instrument. 2) Availability of the answers in the answer raises a tendency  (centraltendesi effect), especially for those who doubt the tendency of the answer. 3) Provided an answer in the middle will eliminate the number of data research, thus reducing the amount of info that should be obtained from the respondents.


G. Analysis Method

Data analysis was done by analyzing the answers given in the questionnaire respondents listed. Data analysis techniques in use in this study are correlational analysis techniques stalitis infrensional. Techniques writer, statistical tests used were Pearson product moment by the following formula:
 y)åx) (åx y - (ån  
R x y =
 y) 2}
åy2-(åx) 2} {åx2 - (å{N  
Description:
R = Keofisien Correlation
Σx = Score grain item of the variable x
Σy = Score grain item of the variable y
Σ x y = The time to score points item
N = number of samples



CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION



A. RESULTS

1. Questionnaire Results
In this study, data collection is done by distributing questionnaires containing questions about the variables x and y, questionnaires were given to respondents further addressed by providing checklist mark (√) in order to obtain data for later managed by us as researchers.
10 questions each with 4 types of response options, each of which has a point following response options:
Strongly Agree (SS): 4 points
Agree (S): 3poin
Disagree (TS): 2 points
Strongly agree (STS): 1 point

The number of 60 people in 1785
Judging from the number of respondents 30 people with 2 variables that were 30 x 2 = 60. data processing with skor897 variable x with variable y with a score of 888, the number 1785.

Judging from the results of these calculations it appears that the correlation coefficient of the questionnaire data processing product moment formula was 0.81 persons showed a strong relationship between the variables x (cigarettes) and y variables (cigarette use among the community), it can be concluded that there is the effect of using smoking in the community.
2. The results of the interview
Based on the interviews we've done to the sources it can be concluded that most of the people have been consuming  of those hard to quit smoking because they have become dependent on chigarete  smoke is  not think about the impact caused by smoking is  the background using a cigarette to relieve stress is, on the basis of solidarity, and so their losses lain. the field of material losses and  of them want to quit smoking and the efforts they are doing to stop smoking is not hanging out with the people who smoke, are willing and determined to quit smoking.


B. Discussion
Based on the answers of the respondents, who stated in the questionnaire and interviews, the problems in the chapter before . people  use cigarettes to relieve stress, on the basis of solidarity and others.
The effects caused by smoking in the community is a matter of health and finances. Health problems, namely, cancer, heart attack, hypertension, pregnancy and fetal disorders.
Efforts to overcome so that people do not smoke anymore, namely, to teach people how to live healthy, holding counseling about the dangers of smoking, and so on.



                                                                                CHAPTER V
                                                       CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

A. Conclusions
Based on the research results can be downloaded from the following result.
1. Community use cigarettes to relieve stress, on the basis of solidarity and others.
2. effects caused by smoking in the community is the health and financial problems. Health problems, namely, cancer, heart attack, hypertension, pregnancy and fetal disorders.
3. Efforts to overcome so that people do not smoke anymore, namely, to teach people how to live healthy, holding counseling about the dangers of smoking, and so on.
B. Suggestion
1. Cigarette consumption behavior should be avoided
2. Do not bring lighters or matches, it can reduce the use of tobacco in public places.
3. Price of cigarettes should be raised, so that smokers think long to buy cigarettes are very expensive.
4. Preferred hang out with people who do not smoke.
5. If you are already a smoker, try to quit gradually.

1 comment:

  1. kita juga punya nih artikel mengenai 'Framework', silahkan dikunjungi dan dibaca , berikut linknya
    http://repository.gunadarma.ac.id/bitstream/123456789/675/1/B-104.pdf
    trimakasih
    semoga bermanfaat

    ReplyDelete