Sunday, March 17, 2013

KUMPULAN ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG Quantitative Research Proposal (Thesis)

Quantitative Research Proposal (Thesis)

 A study which basically uses deductive-inductive approach. This approach departs from the theoretical framework, the idea of ​​the experts, or the understanding of the researcher based on his experience, and then developed into the problems with his solutions were proposed to obtain justification (verification) in the form of empirical support in the field.
Quantitative Research Proposal Format
1. Background Issues
    In this section noted the gap between expectations and reality, both theoretical gaps or gaps that shape the practical problems examined. In the background of this issue briefly presented theories, research findings, conclusions and discussion of scientific seminars or experience / personal observations that are closely related to the subject matter studied. Thus, the issues chosen for study got a more solid footing basis. (See the introduction)
2. Problem Formulation
    The formulation of the problem is an attempt to state explicitly the questions about to look for the answer. The formulation of the problem is a complete and detailed statement of the scope of the problem to be investigated based on the identification and restriction problems. Formulation of the problem should be arranged in short, solid, clear, and written in a question form. Formulation of the problem that will either reveal the variables studied, the type or nature of the relationship between these variables, and the subject of research. In addition, the formulation of the problem should be tested empirically, in the sense of allowing the data gathered to answer questions. Example: Is there a relationship between the level of intelligence of junior high school students with their learning achievement in Mathematics ?. (Tips on creating a formulation of the problem)
3. Research Objectives
    The purpose of research reveals targets to be achieved in the study. The content and formulation of research objectives refers to the content and formulation of research problems. The difference lies in how to define it. The research problem is formulated by means of the question, while the formulation of research objectives set forth in a statement sentence. Example: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the intelligence level of junior high school students with their learning achievement in Mathematics
4. Research Hypothesis (if any)
    Not all quantitative research requires research hypothesis. Kluantitatif research that is exploratory and descriptive not require hypothesis. Therefore the research hypothesis section should not exist in thesis, thesis, or dissertation quantitative research. Procedurally hypothesis filed after investigators conducted a literature review, because the hypothesis of the study is a summary of the conclusions derived from the theoretical literature. The hypothesis is a temporary answer to the problem of theoretical studies considered the most likely and the highest level of truth. But technically, the research hypothesis stated in Chapter I (Introduction) that examined the relationship between the problem and the possible answers become clearer. On this basis, it is in the background of the problem had to be no exposure of the relevant literature in a concise form.
The formulation of the hypothesis should be definitive or directional. That is, in the formulation of hypotheses not only mentioned the relationship or difference between variables, but has shown the nature of the relationship or situation that distinction. Example: There is a positive relationship between the level of intelligence of junior high school students with their learning achievement in Mathematics .
    If formulated in the form of a difference: Students junior high intelligence level have higher achievement in Mathematics  compared with moderate levels of intelligence. Proper formulation of hypotheses: (a) declare linkage between two or more variables, (b) shall be in the form of a question sentence, (c) formulated short, dense, and clear, and (d) can be tested empirically.
5. Usability Research
    In this section demonstrated the usefulness or importance of research, especially for the development or implementation of the development of science in the broadest sense. In other words, the comments section on why usability study examined the feasibility of the problem. From the description in this section is expected to be concluded that the research on selected problems is feasible.
6. Assumptions Research (if required)
    Assumptions research is basic assumptions used as the basis of a thing to think and act in conducting the research. For example, researchers propose the assumption that a person's attitude can be measured using an attitude scale. In this case it is not necessary to prove the truth of the it, but can directly use the results obtained measures of attitudes. Assumptions can be either substantive or methodological. Assumptions relating to substantive research problems, while the methodological assumptions with regard to the research methodology.
7. Scope and Limitations of Research
    Set out in the scope of the variables are studied, populations or research subjects and research sites. In this section can also be presented along with the description of the variables to be subvariabel indicators. Limitations of the study should not exist in this thesis, theses, and dissertations. However, limitations are often needed so that readers can respond to the findings of the study in accordance with the existing conditions. Limitations of the study point to a state that can not be avoided in the study. Limitations often faced by involves two things. First, the limited scope of the study had to be done for reasons of procedural, technical research, or because of the logistics. Second, the limitations of the study in the form of constraints derived from the customs, traditions, ethics and beliefs that are not possible for the researchers to find the desired data.
8. Operational Definition of Terms or Definitions
    Definition of the term or operational definition is required when the difference is expected to arise understanding or lack of clarity of meaning if the term is not given emphasis. Terms that need to be given emphasis are terms associated with basic concepts contained in the thesis, thesis, or dissertation. The criteria that a term containing basic concept is that if the term is closely related to the problem under study or research variables. The definition of the term conveyed directly, in the sense described origins. The definition of the term more focused on understanding given by the researcher.
    The definition of the term operational definition may take the form variable to be studied. Operational definition is a definition that is based on the properties of the defined terms that can be observed.
Indirectly it will appoint an operational definition of data making tool suitable for use or refer to how to measure the variables . Examples of operational definitions of variables "arithmetic achievement" is competence in the field of arithmetic which include add, subtract, multiply, divide, and use the decimal. Preparation of operational definitions necessary because concept or construct being investigated will facilitate measurement. In addition, the preparation of the operational definition allows others to do the same so what the researchers are open to be re-examined by others. (See Glossary)
9. Research Methods
    Principles of discussion contained in this chapter the research method most aspects (1) study design, (2) population and sample, (3) research instruments, (4) data collection, and (5) data analysis.
a. Research Design

    A description of the study design or designs that are used need to be given to any kind of research, especially experimental research. The study design is defined as a strategy to set the background research that researchers obtain valid data in accordance with the characteristics of the variables and research purposes. In experimental studies, the research design chosen was the most researchers to control for other variables that affect the supposedly participated bound variables. Selection of the study design in the experimental study always refers to the hypothesis to be tested. In  research, discussion in the research design section contains an explanation of the type of research done in terms of the purpose and nature, whether exploratory research, descriptive, explanatory, surveys, or historical research, correlational, and causal comparative. In addition, this section also described the variables included in the study and the nature of the relationship between these variables. (See some errors in the design )
b. Population and Sample
    Precise terms population and sample used if research conducted sampling as a research subject. However, if the goal of research is all members of the population, would be more appropriate to use the term subject of research, especially in the experimental study. In the survey, respondents commonly known sources of data and the qualitative research called the informant or subject depending on how the data retrieval. An accurate description of the characteristics of the study population should be given so that the sample size and method of uptake can be precisely determined. The aim is that the selected sample truly representative, meaning it reflects the state population carefully. Sample representativeness is an important criterion in the selection of the sample in relation to the intention to generalize the results of the study sample to the population. If things are getting different samples kakarteristik population, the more likely errors in generalizations. So, things are discussed in the Population and Sample are (a) identification and limits on population or research subjects, (b) procedures and sampling techniques, and (c) the size of the sample.
c. The research instrument
    This section presented the instrument used to measure the variables studied. After that, then presented the data collection instrument procedure development or selection of tools and materials used in the study. This way it will be seen whether the instruments used in accordance with the variables measured, at least in terms of its content. A good instrument  must meet the requirements of reliability. In the thesis, especially dissertation, there must be a part that describes the process of instrument validation. If the instruments used are not made by the researchers, there is an obligation to report on the validity and reliability of the instruments used. Another thing that needs to be expressed in the research instrument is the way the scoring or code against each item question / statement. For tools and materials should be carefully noted the technical specifications of the devices used and the characteristics of the materials used.
    In terms of exact science research instruments are sometimes seen as less appropriate because it has not covered the whole thing used in the study. Therefore, the research instrument section can be replaced with equipment and materials.
d. Data Collection
    This section describes (a) the steps taken in the techniques used to collect the data, (b) the qualifications and number of personnel involved in the data collection process, and (c) data collection timetable. If researchers use others as executors of data collection is necessary to explain how the selection and effort to prepare them for the task. The process of getting permission to study, meet officials, and other similar things do not need to be reported, although it can not be missed in the process of conducting research.
e. Data Analysis
    This section describes the type of statistical analysis used. Seen from the method, there are two kinds of statistics that can be chosen, namely descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. In inferential statistics are statistics  nonparametric statistics. The selection of the type of data analysis is largely determined by the type of data collected by fixed-oriented goals to be achieved or hypotheses to be tested. Therefore, it is essential to note that the accuracy of the data analysis is the analysis technique, not sophistication. Some parametric statistical analysis techniques are more sophisticated and therefore able to provide more accurate information when compared with similar analysis techniques in nonparametric statistics. Application of parametric statistics accurately must meet several requirements (assumptions), while the application of nonparametric statistics do not demand specific requirements.
    In addition to an explanation of the types or techniques of data analysis, should also explained the reason his election. If the selected data analysis techniques are well known, it is not necessary to the discussion at length. Conversely, if the data analysis techniques used are not frequently used (less popular), the description of this analysis should be given in more detail. When used in this analysis should be mentioned computer program, such as SPSS for Windows.
(See analysis)
10. Anvil
    In the course of scientific theories, assumptions or temporary answer to a problem must use scientific knowledge (science) as the basis for assessing argumentation in question. It is intended to obtain a reliable answer. Before the researchers hypothesized shall examine theories and research findings relevant to the issues under study are presented in the foundation of theory or Library Studies. For theses and dissertations, which examined not only the theories that support the theory, but also contrary to the theory frame of mind of researchers. Literature contains two main points, namely the theoretical description of objects (variables) are examined and conclusions
Quantitative research studies

of studies which include reasoning of hypotheses that have been proposed Chapter I.
    In order to provide a theoretical description of the variables studied, it is necessary to study in-depth theory. Furthermore, the reasoning of the hypothesis requires researchers to integrate theory selected as the basis for the study with the results of a review of relevant research findings. Discussion of the research is not done in isolation in a separate section. Literature materials can be removed from a variety of sources such as research journals, dissertations, theses, thesis, research reports, textbooks, papers, reports and discussion of scientific seminars, official government publications and other agencies. It would be better if the theoretical study and the study of research findings based on primary literature sources, namely the contents of library materials derived from the research findings. Secondary sources of literature can be used as a support. For the dissertation, it can be identified based on literature review the position and role of the research being conducted in the context of the wider issues and the contributions that may be given to the development of science-related. At the end of the literature review in this thesis and dissertation there needs to be a separate section that contains an explanation of the views or framework used by researchers studied theories. Selection of library materials will be assessed based on two criteria, namely (1) the principle of recency (except for historical research) and (2) the principle of relevance. The principle of recency is important because rapidly evolving science. An effective theory at one period may have been abandoned in the next period. With the principle of recency, researchers could argue that theories based on the time it considered the most representative. The same applies also to the study of research reports. The principle of relevance is needed to produce literature that is closely related to the problem studied.
11. List of References
    Library materials are included in the reference list should have been mentioned in the text. This means that library materials are only used as reading material but not referred to in the text are not included in the reference list. Instead, all library materials mentioned in the thesis, theses, and dissertations should be included in the reference list. Procedures for writing reference list. Elements that are written in sequence include: 1. the author's name is written with the order: last name, first name, middle name, without any academic degree, 2. year of publication 3. title, including subtitle 4. city ​​where publication, and 5. name of the publisher.

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