Thursday, March 14, 2013




Education as a formal institution is a conducive environment to develop the creative potential of the students. In order to create such conditions, the implementation of the teaching-learning process as much as possible focused on student learning activities that are directly experiencing internal and emotional involvement in the teaching-learning process.
Teaching literature student trying to get closer to the literature, trying to foster a sense of sensitivity and the love of literature as an art copyright. Through these efforts, it is hoped the teaching of literature can help foster a balance between child psychological development, forming a personal determination intact. Rahmanto argued that "the teaching of literature can help education as a whole when its scope covers four benefits, namely: support reading skills, increase cultural knowledge, develop creativity and taste, and to support the formation of character ((1998:16).
The above statement is in line with Indonesian GBPP there reads: "Students are able to enjoy, appreciate, understand, and utilize literature to develop a personality, expanding horizons of life, and increase knowledge of language".

Interpret the contents GBPP, short story is a form of literature that needs to be appreciated by the junior high students. Appreciation stories in academics is something that presence should not be ignored. This is evident in the textbook at the junior high students were able to appreciate the competency standards of poetry, short stories and literary works of Classical Malay
Communicative approach needs to be understood by every language and literature teacher Indonesia to teaching planning, implementing presentation of course materials, evaluating learning outcomes and learning it well.
Communicative approach is seen as a superior approach in language teaching. These advantages, among others because it is based on the view of linguistic theory and language learning that promotes the use of language according to function. In addition, the goal of communicative language teaching approach is communicative form students. That is, through a variety of learning activities students are expected to master communication skills: the ability to use other forms of speech in accordance with the functions of language in the process of understanding and use.
Based on the description, this paper will focus on the communicative approach to the description of the title Communicative Approach in Learning Prose (story).

B. Study of Theory

1. Communicative Approach Itself
The emergence of the term communicative approach in language learning is inspired by a theory that sees language as a means of communicating. Based on this theory, the purpose of language learning is formulated as an overview to develop skills by Hymes (11 972) is called communicative competence.
Communicative approach in language teaching emerged in the 1970s as a reaction to the four schools previously adopted language learning (grammar translation method, direct method, audiolingual method, and cognitive learning theory). The four methods that have the same characteristics namely language learning in the field of language structure called structural or language learning language learning based on the structural approach.
Structural approach to language teaching focuses on knowledge of the rules of language (grammar) which are usually composed of simple structures to complex structures. The learners initially introduced sounds, -form words, sentence structure, and meaning of these elements.
Structural weaknesses of the approach is to never give an opportunity to the learner to practice using the language in real communication situations is actually more urgent owned by the students rather than knowledge of the rules of the language.
The weakness of the structural approach that inspired the birth of a communicative approach that focuses attention on the use of language in communication situations. Communicative approach puts pressure on the significance and function of language. In other words, language for specific purposes in the communication.
Furthermore, to understand the nature of the communicative approach, according Syafi'ie (1998) there are eight things to consider, namely:
a. Theory of Language
Communicative approach to language based on the theory that states that language is essentially a system to express meaning. This theory is put more pressure on semantic and communicative dimensions. Therefore, in language learning based on a communicative approach that needs to be highlighted is the interaction and the communication language, not knowledge of the language.
b. Learning Theory
Learners are required to perform tasks that are meaningful and are required to use the language of the learned. Learning theory are suitable for this approach is the theory of second language acquisition naturally. This theory assumes that language learning is more effective when the language is taught informally through direct communication in the language being studied.
c. Destination
Objectives to be achieved based on the communicative approach is a goal that better reflect the needs of students namely the need to communicate, it is a general purpose language teaching is to develop students' ability to communicate (competence and performance).
d. Syllabus
Syllabus prepared in line with the learning objectives, which should  is the needs of the learners. The objectives were formulated and  material should match the needs of students.
e. Type of Activity
Type of communication activities can be a matter of exchange of information, negotiation of meaning, or interacting activities.
f. Role of Teachers
teacher acts as a facilitator, counselor, and manager of the learning process.
g. Role of Students
The role of the student as a giver and receiver, as negotiators and interaktor. In addition, direct training learners to develop communicative competence. Thus, students not only to master the structure of the language, but also master the form and meaning in relation to the context of use.

h. Role of Materials
Material compiled and presented in the role of supporting efforts to increase proficiency in acts of real communication. The material serves as a very important tool in order to achieve the learning objectives.
2. Communicative Learning Procedures
With regard to the procedures in classroom language learning based on the communicative approach, Finochiaro and Brumfit (in Azies, 1996), offers an outline of learning activities for secondary school level. The outline is as follows.
a. Dialog Brief Presentation
The presentation was preceded by motivation by connecting dialog situation with a learning experience in everyday life.
b. Training Presented Spoken Dialogue
This training begins with an example done by the teacher. The students repeat the teacher verbally example, both together, half, small groups, or individually.
c. Questions and Answers
This is done in two phases. First, the question and answer dialogue based on topics and situations. Second, the questions and answers on the topic related to students' personal experiences.
d. Assessment
Students are invited to examine any phrase contained in the dialogue. Furthermore, the students were given the task to give examples of other expressions of the same communicative function.
e. Withdrawal Summary
Students are directed to make conclusions about grammar rules contained in the dialogue.
f. Interpretative Activity
Students are directed to interpret some  dialogue.
g. Oral Production Activity
Starting from a communication event guided through the activities are free.
h. Giving Task
Provide written assignments as homework
i. Evaluation
Evaluation of learning made orally (Tarin, 1991).
Noting the above procedure, we can see the similarity between the learning procedure based on the principle of structural approaches.
Another case is that proffered by Littlewood methodological procedure consisting prakomunikatif activities and communicative activities. Correspondingly, Harmer (1998) suggests that the stages of communicative language learning should start from nonkomunikatif activity towards communicative activities. In phase nonkomunikatif activity, learners do not have the desire to communicate, they also do not have a purpose to communicate. At this stage the role of the teacher is still dominant, teachers are often intervene. In the communicative phase,  already have the desire and purpose to communicate. Learners are no longer focused on the form, but in content.
With regard to the use of communicative approach Littlewood, said there are two communicative activities that need to be recognized, namely:
1. Functional communication activities
2. Social interaction activities
Functional communication activities may include speaking activities to share information and activities to process language information both of which can be broken down into:
a. activities share information with limited cooperation
b. activities of mutual cooperation to share information with an unlimited
c. activities share information and process information
d. information processing activities
Activities of social interaction can be
a. dialogue and role playing
b. simulation
c. plays skits are funny
d. improvisation
e. debate, and
f. carry out various forms of discussion.
3. Communicative Approach in Learning Prose Appreciation (Story)
Learning literature is a part of language learning, the implementation is integrated with language learning. The general objective of teaching literature that students are able to enjoy, understand, and utilize literature to develop a personality, expanding horizons of life, and increase the knowledge and language skills.
Literature itself is a work of art that uses language. Therefore, the study of literature can be easily integrated with language learning. In addition, immortalized in the interests of the development of communication skills, both oral and written, good understanding (receptive) and use (productive), according to the characteristics based on the communicative approach to language learning.
In the process of learning prose there are various activities that can be implemented. Such activities among others are listening to readers of prose, of prose, prose reading, and writing prose.
Reading prose include reading comprehension activities. In prose learning activities, students are directed to understand prose reading. It must be understood what the students? There are three important things to consider, namely: character, plot, and background stories.

a. Understanding People Story
Characters including a very important element of the story. There is no story without a character. The characters in the story are unique, one character different from the other characters. The difference was marked with different character names, physical differences, and differences in the nature of each character. In prose pembelajarn guided students to identify differences in names, physical condition, and the character of each figure contained in the stories they read.
With regard to the characters in the story pratagonis namely character and antagonist. Pratagonis character is a character who gets the sympathy the reader, because it has a certain character, then the reader is often a pro kepadanya.dan idol readers. Because readers hated antagonist is present as opposed pratagonis figure.
The appeal of a story in part caused by a conflict between the antagonist pratagonis figures. Both figures pratagonis and antagonist are usually the focus of the story called the main character. The main character kind of character fun and unpleasant character (evil), usually supported by other characters commonly supporting character.
In learning to read prose (stories), students are guided to find the main character and the supporting characters. In addition, they are also guided to find pratagonis character and antagonist.

b. Understanding Plot
Plot or plot is a series of events in the story. The series of events was established under the laws of cause and effect. An event that happens in a story must be based on reasonable cause (logical). The behavior of a character in a story closely related to the character of its leaders.
c. Understanding Background Story
The story happens in a place and at a particular time. The place and time of occurrence of an event has the climate, condition, culture, customs, and a certain atmosphere. These factors may affect the character of each figure. Thus, it can be said that the background of a story can influence the character of each character in the story is concerned.
Based on the description, it can be seen that the characters, plot and background story elements are interrelated between each other. Teachers guide the students in this case found the three elements contained in the stories they read.
4. Learning Media Prose (Story)
Be an instructional media one of the factors that determines the success of learning. The use of media in teaching at least two advantages namely:
a. Can make education (teaching) more productive, and
b. Can make education (learning) more individual (Jobrohim, 1994).
The use of media to make learning more productive because the media presents a richer learning experience, not only involves the senses alone. With the media, students can not only learn by listening, but also through seeing and observing. This can increase the strength of memory and attention so that learning will be more productive. In addition, the use of media has the potential to accommodate individual students.
Students stronger memory and absorbance through the saw, and so did the students hear a stronger power. Thus, the use of media, in addition to making learning more productive, it also makes more individual learners.
Learning literature should use a variety of media as needed. For elocution training may be required model. Model good declamation can be expected through the tape vidio and may also bring a good orator to the study. A more practical course choosing a proficient students recited to perform in front of the class. And as is usually awaited by the students as a teacher is his always impressive orator.
5. Evaluation
Evaluation or assessment is intended to determine whether the program in question in accordance with the plan or has reached the target or not. Assessment for learning literature addressed by two things, the results of student learning and the learning process itself. The assessment result is beneficial for students to measure learning progress and beneficial to teachers to find advantages and disadvantages which further used as input for improvement for the next learning activities, (Jobrohim, 1994).
Assessment tools can actually help achieve the goals of learning literature. This can happen if the assessment is more emphasis on students' ability to appreciate (directly). But in fact the school literary belajr assessment results emphasize the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains received less attention. (Jobrohim, 1994).
With regard to the testing literature, Moody explores the literary test the four levels, namely:
a. Rate Information
A test with respect to the data base of a work of literature and data that support the process of interpreting the relevant literature, such as author biographies.
b. Level Concept
This test is related to the perception of how the elements of literature organized. This test requires students' cognitive abilities not only a higher level of understanding, but also the level of analysis and synthesis.
c. Level Perspective
This test relates to the views of students on the reading of literature. This test also requires the cognitive ability of students at a high level. Cognitive abilities is the level required by the application, evaluation, analysis, and synthesis.
d. Rate Appreciation
Cognitive ability test is required by the application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation is primarily (Nurgiantoro, 1988).
In addition to the level of the test, it should also be understood that the testing literature must meet test requirements as well as other tests, the validity (validity). Reliability (reliability), and practicality.

C. Prose Learning Applications (Story)
The following will be presented step-by-step learning prose (stories).
a. Students read literature as a fun activity. In this activity, the teacher has chosen a story that has been considered in terms of language, content and pedagogical considerations. The students are welcome to read literary works that have been that, for example, short story Marriage Gifts Rangkuti Hamzat work. Readings by students without burdened by complicated tasks. They read just sheer pleasure. There are good teachers communicate on a short story first introduction is to motivate them.
b. Prepare questions. In this step, the students were given the task to formulate questions regarding the stories they read. Teachers should guide them in order to arrive at a precise question and relevant analysis. The question should appear in the following section under the caption Appreciative Questions about the story.
c. Students identify and discuss the intrinsic and extrinsic elements that support the short story Marriage Gifts.
d. Students analyze and discuss the background and characteristics of the background stories Marriage Gifts.
e. Students analyze and discuss the characters and stories typical figure Gift Marriage.
f. Students analyze and discuss the influence of psychological character of the background to each character in the short story Marriage Gifts.
g. Students analyze and discuss the stories flow Marriage Gifts.
h. Students analyze and discuss the psychological motives of the behavior of every character in the short story Marriage Gifts.
i. Students analyze and discuss the theme of the short story Marriage Gifts.
j. Students analyze and discuss the moral values ​​contained in the short story Marriage Gifts.

Appreciative questions about the story
1. Formulate the problem to express the author!
2. How does the author of the issues raised!
3. In the story where the real story begins
4. Who is the main character or pratagonis this story? Describe the physical, personal and social background.
5. Write the beginning of the conflict that underlies this story, and the climax is also
6. Are the events in this story authors expressed clearly and simply?
7. Describing the physical characteristics pratagonis character of this story?
8. author of the story sort according to the chosen point of view?
9. What was the atmosphere in the story?
10. Where does the source of the atmosphere that story come from? Was built by the storytelling style of the author or the characters?
D. Cover
1.  need to understand the communicative approach namely: learning theory, theory of language, goals, syllabus, type of activity, the teacher's role, the role of students, the role of the material.
2. The outline learning activities with secondary school level learning procedure based on the communicative approach namely: the presentation of a brief dialogue, training presented oral dialogue, questions and answers, study, drawing conclusions, interpretive activities, oral production activities, administration tasks, and evaluation.
3. There are three things that are important in prose learning activities, so that students understand the reading prose namely: character, plot, and background stories.
4. Learning literature should use a variety of media as needed.
5. The test of literature must meet the requirements of a good test as well as other tests, the validity (validity). Reliability (reliability), and practicality.

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