Monday, May 27, 2013




A. Background

Scientific papers are papers that are structured by the academic community as a scientist or work tops or monumental work which marked .
Scientific work is basically a means of delivering information in the form of new ideas, study, or research findings related to areas of science that they do.
Scientific papers are designed with a specific purpose and intent. Hence, we see several scientific papers in several forms, such as papers, articles, proposal, thesis or dissertation. Each of these forms of writing that have different formats in accordance with the purpose and intent of the writing.
There are various benefits that can be obtained when the academic pursue scientific work activities, such as reading selectively motivated, trained combining readings, extracting, and adding to it, get used to trace or find information in the library, used to find the facts, organize, and present the facts in a clear and systematic , used to think scientifically, either inductively, dedukatif, and merging the two, get intellectual satisfaction, and contributing to the open horizons of science and technology for society.

B. Problem Formulation

Based on the description above, there is a formulation of the problem as follows:

C. Discussion purposes
Based on the above formulation of the problem, then there are several objectives al:
1. karyta describes scientific understanding.
2. describes the scientific attitude.
3. describes the types of scientific work.
4. explain the steps of writing scientific papers.
5. explain the meaning framework and skeleton preparation steps.


A. Moral sense, Attitudes and Values

Moral derived from the Latin word "mores" which means the procedures, habits, and customs. Moral attitudes behavior means behavior that is in accordance with the moral code of social groups, which is developed by the moral concept. What is meant by the concept of moral regulation is behavior that has become customary for members of a culture. Moral concepts that determine the patterns of behavior expected of all members of the group.
According to Piaget (sinilungan, 1997), the nature of morality is a tendency to accept and comply with the regulatory system. Furthermore, Kohlberg (gnarsa, 1985) suggests that the moral aspect is not something inborn, but something growing and can be developed / learned. Moral development is a process of internalization of values ​​/ norms of society according to one's maturity and ability to adapt quickly to the rules that apply in life. Thus, cognitive moral development  the knowledge of good / bad or right / wrong, and affective aspects of the attitude of moral behavior was practiced. Piaget apply moral development, which is described in the rules of the game. According to him the essence of morality is a tendency to accept and obey rule .Piaget system divides the development into three phases, namely:
a. absolute phase
children live rules as something that can be changed, because it comes from a respected authority. Here is the moral regulation as an external object that should not be altered.
b. phase of reality
child adjust to avoid the rejection of others. Rules can be changed, because it comes from the joint formulation. They agreed to change a fair and agreed upon, and feel responsible obey.
c. Subjective phase
child's attention to the motive / intent in the assessment of behavior. Moral development is influenced efforts to free themselves from dependence on parents, increase interaction with others and contact with other views. With the expanded child interaction increasingly able to understand the views of others and sharing rules for the moral life of togetherness.
Besides, there are also moral behavior immoral behavior that is inconsistent with social expectations because attitudes do not agree with the prevailing social standards or lack of feeling obliged to conform, non-moral and immoral behavior or behavior that is inconsistent with social expectations because of indifference or breach to standards of social groups.
Attitude is a behavior that contains an opinion about something. Positive attitude implied in the value system that believes or believed to be the truth. Value is a believed, trusted, and felt and manifested in attitudes or perilak. Typically, the value of the charged past emotional ideals that characterize a person, group or community. An abstract form of moral values, and view and real / concrete in overt behavior that can be observed. Moral attitudes appeared in moral practice with positive category / Receiving, neutral, or negative / reject.
Children who are positive or accept the values ​​of in sympathetic behavior in interacting with the values ​​and the people around him, like a receptive, supportive, caring, and participate in group activities. Neutral moral stance expressed in the behavior of impartiality (or against) the values ​​that exist in society. Attitude  negative moral behavior expressed in a colored resist negative emotions and attitudes as disappointed, upset, angry, resentful, hostile, and against, to moral values ​​in society.
On the attitudes and behavior of the implied moral values ​​ related to the value of something is said to be good and true, worthy, and it should happen. Moral stance largely passed on from generation to generation through the process  lifetime. There are values ​​that need to be maintained, there toward advancement or progressive change, but there is also a change or shift due to various factors that influence it. As a teacher, you need to understand the development of moral attitudes in order to help learners develop  moral attitudes, educating students to be good, to be moral and good and true.
Value is a believed, believed, felt and manifested in attitudes / behavior.
1. Dotrin and dogma
Moral values ​​are respected people become a way of life / general guidelines for the behavior of every citizen. General guidelines emerged as the doctrine / dogma of a group. Suati ideology is the doctrine of the values ​​in the form of the opinion that long studied, experienced,  a group and fought to be realized in society.
Dogma is the benchmark religious values ​​are trusted / believed and pursued its realization by citizens in society.
2. Attitudes and moral categories
People's attitudes toward a moral practice it appears in the positive category / receiving, neutral, negative / reject.
Man to be positive about what satisfies the needs of achievement goals also fit the purpose of life, attitudes positf appeared in associative behavior, accommodating, integrative and constructive. Also may be neutral ie no support nor reject.
The things that disappoint foster negative emotions and attitudes. Negative attitudes manifested in behavior that characterizes annoyance, disappointment, hate, angry, or hostile.
3. Immoral behavior and change
In immoral behavior in which there are shared values. It shows what is good, true, worthy and should have happened. If there is a warning, making appointments, initiate and defend himself expressed regret mean / describe an expectation.
Moral stance partly  from generation to generation, the appearance of the attitude may change in line with the developments that characterize the behavior of a person's personality. He was active and selective shaping attitudes to moral behavior in its environment.
In the development of one's personality may be to maintain the old values ​​(conservative) / change towards progress (progressive). These things become moral principles as guidelines coloring behavior.

B. Pattern of Moral Development
In studying the development of moral attitudes of school-age learners, Piaget (sinolungun, 1997) suggests three stages of moral development in accordance with the rules of the game studies on children.
1. Absolute phase, in which the children live the regulations as a matter of absolute, can not be changed, because it comes from a respected authority (parents, teachers, children are more powerful)
2. Phase reality, where the child adjust to avoid the rejection of others. In the game, children obey the rules agreed upon as a fact / reality that can be agreed upon origin.
3. Subjective phase, where the children pay attention to the motive or understand the rules and develop the  excited.

In the category of moral development, Kohlberg (Gunarsa, 1985) suggests three levels with six stages of moral development.
1. Level 1: prakonvensional. At this level of moral rule contains regulations made under authority. Children do not violate moral rules because  fear threats or punishment from the authorities. This level is divided into four stages: (1) the orientation phase of the compliance and penalties at this stage the child only knows that these rules are determined by the powers that can not be contested. Children must be under, or otherwise, shall be punished. (2) hedonosme relativistic phase at this stage the child is no longer absolutely dependent on the rules that are beyond her prescribed other people who have the authority. Children begin to realize that every event has some terms that depend on the needs (relativism) and one's pleasure (hedonism).
2. Level 2: Conventional. At this stage the child comply with the rules made to be accepted in the group. This level also consists of two phases. (1) the orientation phase of the child's good. At this stage children begin to show the orientation of acts that can be considered good or bad by the other person or the community. Say something good and true if the attitudes and behavior can be accepted by other people or society. (2) phases maintain social norms and authority. At this stage the child shows good deeds and the right not only to be accepted by the people in the surrounding environment, but also aims to be able to defend the rules and norms / social value as a moral obligation and responsibility to enforce existing rules.
3. Level 3: post-conventional. At this level the child obey rules to avoid punishment conscience. This level also consists of two phases. (1) the orientation phase of the agreement between himself and the social environment. At this stage there is a reciprocal relationship between himself and the social environment and the community. Someone comply with the rule as his duties and responsibilities in maintaining the harmony of life. (2) the universal stage. At this stage than there are personal norms are subjective, there are also ethical norm (good / bad, right / wrong) which is universal as determine the source of a deed relating to morality.

Theory of moral development Kohlberg proposed as Piaget suggests that attitudes and moral behavior is not the result of socialization or lessons learned from practices related to cultural values ​​solely. But it also occurs as a result of spontaneous activity is learned and developed through social interaction with their environment children.
In addition to the theory of moral development, moral development in learning patterns associated with adherence to a universally applicable rules, need to be addressed regarding discipline. Discipline comes from the word "disciple" means a person who volunteered to learn from or follow a leader. Discipline is necessary to establish appropriate behavior with rules and roles defined in cultural groups where the people live. Through discipline, children learn to be good and behave as expected by the environmental community. Authoritarian discipline can be instilled through the control of behavior by using relationships. In permissive / laissez-faire through freedom given to children without any penalty or democratically through explanation, discussion, and reasoning and hold a valid regulations.
Elements related to discipline are as follows:
1. Regulations as established pattern of behavior in which the child for life. Has educational value of the direction to be followed and adhered to the child and also helps curb unwanted behavior.
2. Penalties imposed when children make mistakes or act which is not in accordance with the values ​​/ norms prevailing in society. Penalty that prevents the child to not do anything unwanted, raise our children to learn from the experience and motivate children to avoid behaviors that are not accepted by society.
3. The award is given when the child does something with the values ​​or norms, educate and motivate children to repeat the good behavior and correct fit societal expectations.
4. Consistency or regularity in carrying out the rules and discipline so as not to confuse the child learn to do something right / wrong, good / bad. Useful discipline if any disciplinary effect on behavior, causing sensitivity to behavioral attitude is good, true, and fair and where the child's personality affects behavior attitude is part of internalized discipline on children as a whole.

C. Factors Affecting the Development of Moral
Children are born without a moral (immoral) to behave according to moral attitudes noble values ​​in society yet known. Programmatic interventions through education, social and cultural environment, influence the development of personality structure morally loaded. Is experienced in families with peers and colleagues education , fellow workers / activities amid surroundings.
a. Changes in the environment
Changes and advances in various fields to bring a shift in moral values ​​and attitudes of citizens amid changes can occur advances / kemrosotan moral. Individual differences in moral behavior part is the impact of the experience and lessons of the environmental value of the community. Environmental reward and punishment. This accelerated the process of learning and moral development of the unconditioned.
b. Personality structure
Psycho-analysis (Freud) describes developments including moral personality. Starting with the system ID, as the biological aspects of the irrational and unconscious. Followed by the psychological aspects subsistemego rational and conscious. Then the formation of the superego as a system of social and moral values ​​of society.
The third subsystem is affecting the development of moral personality and behavior of individuals. Personality clash between subsystems, be someone difficult to fit in, feel dissatisfied and anxious and act / behave deviate. Being harmony between personality subsystem in the moral development will culminate in effective conscience (superego) menampilakan character / behavior immoral person.
There are a number of important factors that influence the moral development of the child (Hurlock, 1990).
1. The role of conscience or the ability to know what is right and wrong when children are faced with a situation that requires a decision on the action to be taken.
2. Role of guilt and shame when to act and behave as expected and does not violate the rules.
3. The role of social interaction in  given deal in children to learn and implement the agreed standards of behavior, family, school, and in relationships with others.

D. Stages of Moral Development
- According to Kohlberg there are 3 stages of moral development, namely:
a. prokonvensional stage
where the rules contain a measure of moral authority made at this stage of development the child is not going to break the rules for fear of the threat of punishment from the authorities.
b. conventional stage
children obey rules made together, so that it is received in the peer group / by authority.
c. Phase
Children obey rules to avoid punishment conscience.
- According to J. Bull moral development is divided into three, namely:
a. anomie stage
moral inability baby. Moral baby is ready then a potential developed in the environment.
b. heteronomy stage
where Morral developing the potentially driven lai / authority through rules and discipline.
c. sosionomi stage
where morale amid growing peer / society, they are obeying the rules of the group in the order of authority.
d. autonomy stage
filling and controlling moral conscience and the ability to act freely without pressure environment.
E. How to Study the Moral Attitude
Moral attitudes and behavior can be studied in the following way.
1. Learning through cob / errata (tryal and error). Child trying to learn to see whether it meets the standard of social behavior and social approval or not. If not, then the child can try again until one day by chance to behave as expected.
2. Direct education is done in a way children learn to react appropriately limited in certain situations, and done in a way to meet regulations in the family, schools, and communities.
3. Identification with those he admires. This method is usually done unconsciously and without pressure from others. What is important is the example of a person who is identified to emulate her behavior.

Current education generally prepare students to have a lot of knowledge, but do not know how to solve certain problems encountered in everyday social life. Education prepares students to be smart and intelligent child, but less prepare learners to be a good boy. Problems with regard to good and bad to study the moral sphere. Similarly, in developing the moral aspects of learners means how to help learners to be good, who knows and behave or act to do good and true. Attitudes and moral behavior can be developed through education and instill values ​​/ norms which is integrated in the lessons and activities carried out in families and school children. Education not only prepares children to become intelligent human beings, but also a good human being, virtuous, and useful to others.

F. implications for education
moral development through education should not only teach values ​​as a slogan. This is evident in moral and moral culture adherents believed that received
Education and moral learning process exemplified parents and be integrated (integrated) at every opportunity in all activities of life educators teach regularity, discipline and train and familiarize learners in immoral behavior and activities. moral development activities citizens as part of efforts to build whole Indonesian people. The ideal way is to establish the  through exemplary educators in general to the citizens of the nation as a lifelong learner. Here the character of the nation's development proceeds.



A. Conclusion

According to the explanation of the above it can be concluded that every child needs to have a positive moral attitude. There are several phases in the development of the moral; absolute phase, realistic phase, phase subjective.
In general there are several stages of moral development according to Kohlberg ie, prokonvensional stage, the conventional stage, Stage pascakonvensional and according to J. Bull moral development is divided into three, namely: anomie stage, stage of heteronomy, sosionomi stage, the stage of autonomy

B. Suggestion
Author is fully aware of all the flaws in this paper and the author and will happily accept suggestions and criticism for the perfection of this paper. For all the advice and assistance, the author thanks very much.

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