EXAMPLES OF SCIENTIFIC WRITING INDONESIAN SHAPED CASE STUDY: E-BALL DANGER VIRUS
In everyday life, health is a priceless blessing. Many people had to give up the time wasted to lie at home or the hospital to restore body condition decreased. Many causes of declining body condition. Some of them are caused by viruses and bacteria . Both of these microorganisms being an element in most of the pests that attack living creatures.
Virus according to Indonesian Dictionary is a microorganism that can not be seen with the ordinary microscope, can only be viewed with an electron microscope, and the cause of infectious diseases such as smallpox, influenza, and rabies. Meanwhile, according to one of the sites, including the Ebola virus is actually a virus that causes dengue fever syndrome. Ebola virus epidemic is high in Africa including Zaire, Gabon, Ivory Coast, and Sudan. Usually the Ebola virus can spread rapidly in a single family. Where if one family member is infected, the other members are also easily infected.
1.2. Identify the Problem
1. What is a virus?
2. What is Ebola virus?
3. When the virus first discovered?
4. Where the virus was first discovered?
5. What are the symptoms of a person infected with the virus?
6. What the impact of the virus?
7. What percentage of the victim's life expectancy?
8. How does the virus ?
9. Is there a vaccine to prevent or treat the victim?
10. What should be done to prevent the virus?
1.3. Problem Formulation
From the above description of the identification problem can be formulated as the following problem:
"How and how to take precautions against Ebola virus attack?"
1. To find out about the Ebola Virus.
2. To know the dangers - dangers when infected with Ebola Virus
3. To determine if the characteristics of a person infected with the Ebola Virus
4. To find out how to prevent the outbreak of Ebola Virus
2.1. Basis Theory
· Ebola: a severe and fatal disease Often in Humans and nonhuman Primates (monkeys and chimpanzees) by the caused by the Ebola virus; Characterized by high fever and internal bleeding; can be spread from person to person is largely limited to Africa. When the search results the Oxford English Dictionary defined to Indonesian
Can be interpreted as follows:
Ebola: A severe or even fatal outbreak affecting humans and nonhuman beings in the form of primara (monkeys and chimpanzees) caused by the Ebola virus; characterized by high fever and bleeding or injuries; may be transmitted from person to person is usually the case in Africa
· According to the website of Science, nationalgeographic.com Ebola or better known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a disease caused by the Ebola virus was first discovered in Africa in 1976.
· While the site yahoo answer forum! Answer found the following explanation: Ebola is a virus of the genus Ebolavirus, familia Filoviridae, and also the name of a disease caused by the virus. Deadly Ebola disease. The symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, body pain, bleeding inside and outside, and fever. Mortality rates ranged from 50% to 90%. Originally he is from the Ebola River in Congo.
· Ebola virus actually included one of the viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever syndrome. Ebola virus epidemic is high in Africa including Zaire, Gabon, Ivory Coast, and Sudan.
Usually the Ebola virus can spread rapidly in a single family. Where if one family member is infected, the other members are also easily infected.
History of Ebola Virus Discovered
Ebola virus found in Sudan and Zaire in 1976. Habitats in nature is not known, as well as the process becomes epidemic. Ebola name itself comes from the name of the river near where the discovery of this virus.
Ebola, or better known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a disease caused by the Ebola virus was first discovered in Africa in 1976. Early symptoms of this disease include fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, sore throat and other symptoms are accompanied by diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain. In some cases the disease is even causing rash, red eyes and bleeding internally and externally.
The National Institutes of Health has noted that almost 90 percent of people infected with Ebola virus, has died. The virus is endemic in some African countries like the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Sudan, Côte d'Ivoire, and Uganda.
Ebola virus can survive in the atmosphere for a few minutes, and then be killed by ultraviolet light. Currently Ebola virus is a highly virulent virus. Ebola virus damage the body's tissues and cells and cause death in less than 2 weeks.
Habitat Ebola Virus
Actually, humans are not the natural nest of the Ebola virus. People first infected with the virus is believed they are in direct contact with the infected animals. Animals that could potentially spread the Ebola virus to humans include chimpanzees, gorillas, forest antelopes, cynomolgus monkey.
Once a person is infected from an animal then that person has the potential to spread the virus to others through blood fluid, saliva, mucus.
Scientists are still not yet know where the Ebola virus originated. Studies show if bats can be infected with the Ebola virus, but the virus is able to survive without the Ebola disease. Bats claimed as animals that play an important role in maintaining the natural virus
Ebola Virus Transmission
Ebola virus spread among humans through food or holding. Direct contact with contaminated blood or fluid that can also infect humans. Not only that, humans can also be infected simply by touching objects (eg needles) that have been contaminated. Ebola is transmitted through direct contact with body fluids of patients with Ebola. For example, blood, feces, urine, saliva and sweat.
Once a person is infected from an animal then that person has the potential to spread the virus to others through blood fluid, saliva, mucus.
Based on some experiences in some countries where the case occurred, often spreading Ebola and attacked the workers in the field of public health services. Of course this is normal because they are in charge of caring for patients who contracted the virus. Especially if they do not use protection such as masks and gloves. Use new needles also as a means of spreading the virus.
Outbreaks of Ebola Virus Symptoms
Usually the initial symptoms that look like high fever, headache, muscle aches, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Sometimes accompanied by a sore throat, hiccups, and red and itchy eyes.
The signs and symptoms usually appear include vomiting, nose bleeding, vomiting blood, and bloody eyes.
Furthermore, on a more serious condition can be found chest pain, shock and even death are not uncommon to end up with.
For it is better if we recognize each other what was the cause of these infections. Noted to have occurred 1,850 cases of Ebola Virus and 1,200 deaths and
· After the above symptoms start Ebola virus. Ebola virus attacks the blood. Dead blood cells will clog the blood capillaries and causing bruises, blisters and even dissolve like wet paper.
· On the 6th day of blood out of the eye, nose, and ears. In addition, people spewing black liquid that is in the body tissues are destroyed.
· On day 9, the patient usually dies.
Inveksi cause of Ebola Virus
Ebola hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola 4 of 5 species. Fourth virus include EBO-Z, Sudan Ebola virus (EBO-S), Côte-d'Ivoire Ebola virus (EBO-C), and Bundibugyo Ebola virus (EBO-B). While the fifth is a species of Ebola virus Ebola Reston (EBO-R). EBO-R species can also infect humans actually, but now it has been reported that the EBO-R infection does not cause disease.
Men and women have the same opportunities Ebola infection. For example, men. Men who work in the forest (especially in Africa or the Philippines) have a greater risk of Ebola virus infection. Well, if by chance you have been infected with this virus, it is advisable for you to get the right treatment so that all of the above complaints can be resolved.
Therapy For Victims infected with Ebola Virus
Actually there is no specific treatment for this disease. To date the patient received supportive therapy only as a liquid electrolyte that serves to maintain oxygen levels and blood pressure of the patient.
There are several things that must be considered in the treatment of infectious disease Ebola.
1. Care should be given strictly. Because Ebola virus is highly contagious.
2. All the liquid that comes out of the patient's body either saliva, urine, or blood must be handled carefully. Because of these fluids can be contagious Ebola virus.
3. If the patient dies, buried quickly as possible with little contact as possible.
Prevention Against Ebola Virus Attacks
As explained above, the Ebola virus is able to spread from one human to another human being only by direct contact only. For the prevention of infectious disease Ebola is also quite difficult.
Most notably is to avoid direct contact with an infected person Ebola virus as much as possible. Avoid shaking hands, kissing, and having sex with an infected person. Although the outbreak of Ebola occurred in many African countries, it is possible the virus could spread throughout the world.
If a family member infected with this virus is highly recommended that the person is admitted to hospital. So, when you have a friend who died from the disease, do not try no direct contact with him.
And for some workers in the forest area of epidemic transmission of Ebola virus, is highly recommended to always wear gloves to avoid direct contact with objects that may have been contaminated.
Attack-Attack Early Ebola Virus
IN 1967 an outbreak of a deadly virus that was then called Marburg virus because the first known sufferer was a factory worker vaccine Behringwerke in Marburg, Germany. Day-to-day tasks that workers are handling the animals attempt to create a vaccine, especially certain monkeys from Central Africa.
The next victim was a veterinarian from Yugoslavia who also handles the monkeys of the same type as that brought to Marburg. The Marburg virus outbreak victims, at least on record, not much.
European countries to immediately stop the import of monkeys suspected of carrying the virus, while Europe has entered into exterminated.
Approximately ten years later, in 1976, another outbreak caused by a virus that attacks mainly occurred on the banks of the river Ebola, also in Central Africa. Virus experts from the WHO and the U.S. CDC brought to it.
At first, they thought a virus Marburg virus as the cause because the early symptoms similar to the disease caused Marburg disease, only more violent. But, then they conclude that the virus is a new kind and given the name of the Ebola virus.
Ebola Virus Vaccine
Kapanlagi.com - One of the most dangerous diseases in the world are caused by the Ebola virus could no longer be prevented transmission, because Ebola vaccine has been successfully tested on primates, and in the near future will be tested to the human body.
The team of researchers from the U.S. and Canada led by Dr Anthony Sanchez reported the developments in the meeting of the Community 162 General Microbiology held at The Edinburgh International Conference Centre on Monday (31/3).
"The biological threat is spread by Ebola virus can not ignore. Deadly Ebola outbreak continues to spread, "Sanchez said, as quoted from the site www.eurekalert.com - site updated information science and technology development.
Sanchez said, the pattern of cross-continent trip transportation and tourism growing so massive recent times has made the spread of Ebola to the most remote places all over the world.
"And Ebola has become the greatest potential for the presence of weapons in the form of bio-terrorism. We really need protection in the form of a vaccine, "he said.
Until recently, there were approximately 1,850 cases of Ebola fever virus occurs worldwide. Early symptoms of illness caused by this virus include a fever, headache, sore throat, fatigue, muscle melancholy, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
Another symptom that is often demonstrated by people who are exposed to Ebola are red spots on the skin, red eyes, and eyes bleed.
Thus the disease turn it off so that according to statistics, the number of deaths from Ebola virus at 90%, meaning that only 10% of patients can survive Ebola virus.
Because it is very lethal, efforts to produce and test the Ebola vaccine is hard done by experts. One factor that inhibits the Ebola vaccine research is the lack of protection of laboratory facilities that can protect research staff.
"Ebola virus has 4 levels of threat," said Sanchez.
"As difficult to obtain the appropriate staff and facilities, vaccines for viruses such as Ebola fever, Marburg, and Lassa also produced because they` hard `kill viruses that stimulate blood antibodies. For deadly viruses like Ebola, we need to get the immediate cell response, which involves the production of killer T-cells before immunity is strong enough to prevent or ward off infection, "he explained.
The researchers are currently using a variety of techniques of re-combination of DNS, which lets them trigger cell responses and produce an effective vaccine against non-human primates.
One candidate vaccine will be tested to humans for the first time is a vaccine that has entered the phase of clinical trials-the first in 2006.
"Ebola virus infection in the human body can indeed be deadly, but the monkey proves survived the virus infection, and this could be a very useful example for trials on animals," he said.
Ebola vaccine testing using non-human primates show clear results, and provide a promising development for the presence of a protective vaccine, he added.
"The success of a vaccine trial in humans this would be good news for us all, because we can equip our medical personnel when an outbreak of Ebola outbreak. We can prevent high mortality rates and controlling the spread of this dangerous disease, "said the researchers from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, United States that.
In addition to announcing the development of their research, the team from the United States also hopes their scientific findings could spur vaccine research in infectious diseases such as Marburg virus, HIV, and bird flu. (* / Cax)
Ebola Virus Case (1)
REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, KAMPALA - deadly Ebola virus outbreak back. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that virulent virus that has killed 13 people in Uganda.WHO states are increasingly a prevent the deadly virus.
Joaquim Saweka, the WHO representative in Uganda says Ebola suspected infections emerged in early July in Kibale district, about 170 kilometers (100 miles) west of the capital Kampala.
"There were 20 people thought to have contracted Ebola and 13 of them have died," said Saweka.
"A team of experts from governments, WHO and CDC (Center for Disease Control of the United States is now in the field and follow up on all suspected cases, and those who come into contact with the patient."
Saweka said the origin of the outbreak has not been confirmed, but 18 of the 20 cases occurred in one family understood.
Kibale near Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is a virus where it appeared in 1976, takes its name from the Ebola River.
Symptoms include sudden fever, very weak, muscle pain, headache and sore throat, followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash kidney, liver dysfunction and internal and external bleeding.
Ebola in Uganda last reported in May last year when it killed a 12-year girl.
Yaling countries hit by devastating outbreak was in 2000 when 425 people were infected, and more than half of them died.
To be able to know the dangers of Ebola Virus, We are required to understand all kinds of the virus itself. So that we are able to anticipate and act safely when we travel to the place near the location where the Ebola virus attacks often prey or virus attack is approaching when the cities where the population. Because it is a nightmare of the entire population of the world, and it would be nice if we knew.
Although it has many investigators in the field of Virology are trying to find a vaccine and try to heal the victims contracted the Ebola virus, but still has not been able to find a way out. Recorded 1,850 cases of Ebola and 90% of these fatalities. This figure is the percentage death rate significantly. One of his supporters was not the discovery of a vaccine for the virus. In the meantime, a vaccine that works 100% only in chimpanzees and monkeys, but not in humans.
Efforts made in the healing of patients with some of the things that still can not be said to be maximal. such as the patient's fluid balance, keeping blood pressure and oxygen levels as well as keeping patients infected from the things that can cause infection. All of it is done with special care therapy mode. However, no patients who survived more than 3 weeks.
The main obstacle in the research and manufacture of vaccine for Ebola virus is the lack of protection facility protects bia laboratory staff researchers or experts given the threat of Ebola virus is a level 4 or higher according to experts. Ebola virus is highly contagious and requires special treatment. Ebola virus, Marburg, and Lassa also difficult to produce because they `kill` viruses that stimulate blood antibodies. For deadly viruses like Ebola, we need to get the immediate cell response, which involves the production of killer T-cells before immunity is strong enough to prevent or ward off infection.
Threat of the deadly Ebola virus outbreak continues to spread. With patterns transcontinental trip transportation and tourism growing so massive recent times has made the spread of Ebola to the most remote places all over the world. And would be a nightmare if Ebola has become the greatest potential for the presence of weapons in the form of bio-terrorism. So really in need vaccines that can combat that if Ebola Virus actually used biological weapons by terrorists.
So far not much that can be done to cure the victims infected by the Ebola virus. "Prevention is better than cure" word is inappropriate for use as a guideline what to do. Prevent the spread of the Ebola virus are the only thing done. Avoid direct contact, such as handshakes, kissing, or exposed to fluid from patients or victims of Ebola Virus. If there are victims who have contracted Ebola symptoms ie vomiting, nose bleeding, vomiting blood, bloody eyes, bruised and blistered skin-sea like wet paper, the best move is to take the victim to a hospital that handles Virus or contact the hospital to deal with the virus asked to act against the victim's pickup contracted Ebola. And when in the forest region of Ebola virus epidemic transmission, greatly obliged to always wear gloves and protective equipment to avoid direct contact preventer direct contact with objects that may have been contaminated.
In the description above discussion it can be concluded that in order to know How and how to take precautions against Ebola virus attack, we must:
· Knowing about about Ebola Virus
· Know the location of the Ebola virus epidemic
· Understand and distinguish the characteristics of people who are infected and not infected with Ebola virus
· Studying the Ebola virus
· Understand the Ebola virus threat level
· Avoid direct contact with other people who are not known
To be able to know How and how to take precautions against Ebola virus attack, we need to:
A. We must have a thorough knowledge of virus dangers and how to take precautions against Ebola virus attacks.
B. We have learned about the media for the transmission of Ebola virus infects its victims
C. We must know the characteristics of the patient or the Ebola virus infected people and try to avoid direct contact with patients, both liquids, dirt, and slime
D. We must use protective gear such as masks and gloves if they have direct contact with patients infected with Ebola virus
E. We have to be careful when finding dead animals such as monkeys, chimpanzees and monkeys. Try not to make direct contact with the carcass.
3.2 Suggestions and Feedback
1. Should know clearly about the dangers of Ebola virus attack,
2. Should not travel to the place where the case of Ebola virus
3. If the urgency for visiting the site of virus cases should not travel to the place where the case of Ebola virus, such as country, try not to make direct contact with surrounding objects.