Friday, June 28, 2013




1.1 Background
The scientific study of a language is called Linguistics while the people who specialize their research on language is called Linguist. The word linguistics is derived from the Latin Lingua, which means language. It is to describe and explain the structure of language used by a group of people, but what we are talking here is apparently about general language in detail. Linguistics itself is divided into two parts known as macro and micro linguistics. Macro Linguistics deals with the relation of the language with all the aspects beyond of the language itself. For example: social factors, psychology, anthropology, and neurology. Meanwhile Micro Linguistics deals with the internal structure of language like the structure of phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon. Psycholinguistics itself is included in macro linguistics. The word of Psycholinguistics is formed by two words mainly Psychology and Linguistics. Both of them are different but they have similarity that concern with language as the formal object. However, the objects of material between Psychology and Linguistics are different. Linguistics deals with the structure of language while Psychology concern with the process or behaviour of the people in using language.
Some of linguists have made their own definitions of psycholinguistics in different points of view:
Lackanger in (Umar and Napitupulu: 36) cites: “Psycholinguistics is the study of language acquisition and lingusitc behaviour, as well as the psychological mechanism responsible for them.” The definition above emphasizes on the limitation of language acquisition and linguistic behaviour. The acquisition of language is closely concerned with the language learning, otherwise, linguistic behaviour relates to the process of competence and performance. The process of competence and performance are at all times, with other words, the mechanism of psychology has a
very important role. Hartlet in (Umar and Napitupulu: 35) cites: “Psycholinguistics investigates the interrelation of language in mind in processing and producing utterances and language acquisition.” What we can take in this statement in how acquisition of language works. It is the process of how can we get known the process occurs and it has meaningful unit, which furthermore can be understood by hearer.
Stern (1983: 296) cites: “Psycholinguistics deals directly with the process of encoding and decoding as they relate states of message to state communicators.” This definition stresses on the process of encoding and understanding to the codes delivered between speaker and listener. These processes, decoding and encoding take place in human mind. The speaker and listeners hold an important role in this case.
The speaker delivers his or her messages in codes, later on, the listener will try to perceive the meaning codes. That is the reason why it needs mutual understanding between speaker and listener.
Whether it is viewed from psychology and linguistics, these elements cannot be separated from each other. Since it is based upon these elements, we can see that speaker may be successful in their speech. They can know their weakness further; they can develop their knowledge especially in speaking. Automatically, their audience will be interested in their speech. This is the tool of a speaker to give some
influence their audience when giving them information. As the topic is related to psycholinguistics, so the writer would like to tell a little bit about psycholinguistics in the next chapter. From this statement, the writer tries to identify speech errors. The writer wants to analyze the speech errors made by the Reporter and Guest Stars of “INDONESIA THIS MORNING” News Program.
1.2 Scope of Analysis
It is a reality that most of the people in the world like watching television so much, for television is a set of tools or an audio-visual medium of communication. It is an interesting problem to know what will happen further. Television has many interesting programs such as: education, entertainment, news program, quiz, variety of shows, etc.
The scope that the writer wants to view is about interview spoken by the Reporters and Guest Stars on “INDONESIA THIS MORNING” News Program. This programme always is watched by us, but we rarely realize whether or not they make some errors in speech.
Considering the reason above, the writer wants to find out speech errors that may occur in the interviews by Reporter and Guest Stars. The writer was convinced that such speech errors made by Reporter and Guest Stars of “INDONESIA THIS MORNING” News Program are interesting matters to reveal and solve, and would be beneficial for us as linguists and also for those who are concerned and involved in
1.3 Problems of Analysis
In most crucial human activities, success depends on knowledge, skill, and self-confidence. There are some characteristics which form the basis of effective speech. Without the knowledge, the speeches become empty or even are not successful. Without skill, expression is often crude or monotonous: and without selfconfidence, the speaker stumbles and lacks of power. Considering these, the writer
saw some problems that appeared in an interview. They were:
1. The kinds of the speech errors made in the interviews on INDONESIA THIS MORNING News Program.
2. How often they produce errors in their speech.
3. The Reporter and Guest Star’s factors that make speech errors.
4. The tips for reducing the speech errors.
Those problems can be formulated as follow:
1. What kinds of the speech errors are found in the interviews?
2. How often do they produce errors in their speech?
3. What are the Reporter and Guest Star’s factors of making errors?
4. What are the tips for reducing speech errors?
1.4 Objectives of Analysis
Concerning with the questions raised dealing with speech errors in the interviews and related to psycholinguistics, the writer have proposed some objectives as follows:
1. To identify the kinds of speech errors made by the Reporter and Guest Stars of “INDONESIA THIS MORNING” News Program on Metro TV
2. To tabulate the frequency of each kind of speech error made in the interviews
3. To find the factors that made the errors by Reporter and Guest Stars
4. To propose some tips for reducing speech errors
1.5 Significance of Analysis
It is expected that this study will be beneficial for those who are interested in knowing speech errors that can be found in interviews of news program on television. Thus some significance expected to reach are as follows:
1. The readers will get more and more explanations about psycholinguistics particularly on speech errors in interviews.
2. The readers will know the kinds of errors which are often made in interviews and how often they occur
3. To show the readers that to be a Reporter or a Guest Star is not such an easy thing for he/she has to practice well and increase his/her communication skill regularly.
1.6 Review of Related Literature
In completing this thesis, the writer has consulted some references concerned with the topic to support the ides of analysis. Those references are: Psycholinguistics, A Second language Perspective by Hatch (1983). This book helps the writer to know how the Psycholinguistics becomes a discipline of knowledge.
The Psychology of Language by Fodor (1974). This book gives some information to the writer about relationship between language and Psychology. The Acquisition of Language: The Study of Development Psycholinguistics by Mc Neill (1970). This book contains some information about the possibility of
speech errors by human. This book is also helpful for the writer. A Study of Speech Errors Made by MTV Asia VJ in Presenting the Music Program by Handayani (2000). This thesis gives some information about speech errors that made by a presenter. An Analysis of Speech Errors Made by Announcers of “Gita Gets Moving” English Program by Budiarti (2006). This thesis gives some information about speech errors that made by announcers on English Program.
An Analysis of Speech Errors Made by Debaters of English Debate Competition at the 25th Anniversary of IMSI USU by Malau (2007). This thesis gives some information about speech errors that made by students.
Psychology and Language: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics by Clark and Clark (1977). This book provides coverage of such important areas as the production of language, the representation and use of meaning and the relation of psychology process to language universals that broaden the writer knowledge especially through the explanations of the types of speech errors. This book is really beneficial for the writer in identifying and classifying the common speech errors. These are nine classifying the common speech errors that are going to be analyzed in this thesis, they are: silent pause, filled pause, false starts (unretraced), false starts (retraced), repeat, correction, interjection, stutter, slip of the tongue with its subtypes.




  2. Bagus, tlong kirim halaman berikutnya