THE USE OF ANIMATION MOVIES FOR DEVELOPING STUDENTS’
WRITING SKILL OF NARRATIVE TEXTS A CASE STUDY OF
TEACHING ENGLISH AT ELEVENTH
GRADE STUDENTS OF SMA N
10 SEMARANG IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2006/2007
1.1 Background of the Study
Besides our mother tongue, Indonesian and Javanese language, we also learn English as our second language. English is very important because nowadays English already be one of the most important languages, beside Mandarin .In other words by mastering English either actively or passively, we can grasp a half of this world, not only in business world but also in
politics and also in education. Our government awares how important of English is, so they made English be one of the subject which is taught from playgroup until the university. In English there are four language skills, they are listening, speaking, reading and writing. The students must master the four of language skills so they can use English actively and also passively. Writing as a part of the language skills besides listening, speaking and reading, must be taught
maximally by the teacher to the student. Writing is also one media of communication. According to Byrne (1980:24) writing is a primary means of recording speech, even though it must be acknowledged as a secondary medium of communication, so that the writer can conclude that writing is very important as one media of communication, that can help us to have a good socialization, can express our idea, feeling, and our opinion so that we can have a good interaction with our society. We can see the importance of writing in daily life and also in our social life, like in education and business aspect, for example when we write letter or application letter. Writing also gives some other benefits. Besides being means of communication, writing can also create jobs. In beginning writing, it is just an activity to express our idea, opinion, or feeling in the text. Writing can also be a hobby to spend our time, but finally in this modern life,
people can get money from doing their writing, for example a journalist, novelist or scrip writer.
Although, writing is very important for us, it is a difficult subject especially for the student. The reason is because writing is a mixture of our idea, vocabulary and also grammar, according to Heaton in his book”Writing English Language Test”(1975:138); Writing skill are more complex and difficult to teaching, requiring, and mastering not only of grammatical and rhetorical devices but also conceptual and judgment, because of the difficulties of writing, some efforts have been done to solve the problem .The main objective is to make the writing become easier to learn for the students. From the Heaton’s opinion, the writer can conclude that writing is a very important subje ct because in writing we must share idea from our brain, it is not easy to translate concept in our brain to be a written language, and we must also be clever to choose and to combine the vocabulary to create something that is meaningful .We also must pay attention to the grammar, so it is normal if the student think that writing is a difficult subject because they must pay attention to many things (idea, concept, vocabulary and grammar). Besides that reason, there is another factor that makes writing be the most difficult subject. The other reason is that there are a lot of many kinds of texts in English, such as narrative, descriptive, recount, spoof and many more. Each text has different characteristics. There are generic social function, structure and lexicogrammatical features. Usually the student can differentiate each text from another and they mix all kinds of texts. This will be a challenge for the teacher to find out how the student can distinguish each kind of text from another. To solve that problem, a teacher must find out how to make them be able to distinguish each kind of text from another, the teacher also must try to develop the ability of writing, grammar and structure of the student, and they also must find out an interesting method or visual aid to teach writing, so they will be interested in writing class. According to Kreidler (1965:1) he had an opinion that visual aid can be useful to the language teacher because;
a) They create situations which are outside the class room wall,
b) Introduce the students to unfamiliar cultural aspects,
c) Give reality to what might be understood, verbally by the students,
d) Change situations quickly and easily in a drill, provide
decoration for the classroom. Basically the teacher can use all kinds of visual aids but they must
pay attention to how the importance of the visual aid for the teaching learning process is, how the effectiveness of using the visual aids is, and many more questions, related to visual aids. Any kinds of visual aid that teacher uses must make the students comfortable with the material or the class so they can easily understand the lesson. Kreidler (1965; 41) also has another opinion, he
said that: Using any kind of method has goals to give the students the opportunity to express their own idea, using the language pattern that they have learned. And that the students need this kind of opportunity in order to begin to use English in a way that enables them to express their ideas, interest, feeling and needs, clearly, correctly and confidently. Based on Kreidler opinion, the writer can conclude that visual aid has an important function that the teacher can use in teaching and learning process, visual aids can also give the students an opportunity to extend their ability and also to explore their talent.
Since long time ago teacher already use any kinds of visual aid for example; in book, picture, song, real object, etc. In this final project the writer chose a film, Brother Bear in a writing class, the writer hopes that by using film the students will be more interested in learning writing in a class. The writer will explore a genre in writing, that is, narrative, because narrative is an interesting genre for students because they can share their idea, opinion and their own experience, like writing in a diary. According Charles et al (1985:129), he had an opinion:
A narrative is a story, a narrative writing is writing that tells about a story. We use narrative writing when we tell a friend about something interesting that happened to you at work or in school, when you tell someone a joke, or if you write about the events of the day in the privacy of a diary or journal. A narrative text is very suitable for the students in writing class because they can easily express their own idea drawn from their own experience at school, house or anywhere, in their narrative writing. 1.2 Reasons for Choosing the Topic Some reasons why the writer chooses the titles “the use of animation movies for developing students’ writing skill of narrative text, a case study of teaching English at eleventh grade students of SMA N10 Semarang are: a) A narrative text is the most interesting of writing genre for students of Senior High School because it tells about something imaginative so it will be quite relevant to their world and make them produce a text. b) As a student of the education program of the English Department
the writer has a great interest in this problem. The writer would like to find out more about the problems in teaching writing especially to students in Senior High School. The writer uses Brother Bear film because this film has strong characters that are very interesting for the students, Brother Bear also has a lot of moral values that can give a lot of social education to the students, and Brother Bear also has a simple story.
1.3 Statements of the Problem
The problems that will be discussed in this study are:
1. What are the students’ difficulties in understanding a
2. To what extent does
Brother Bear increase the ability of students in writing a narrative text?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this study can be stated as follows:
1. To find out what the students’ difficulties in understanding a narrative text are.
2. To find out the extent to which Brother Bear increases the ability of students in writing a narrative text
1.5 Outline of the Study
Chapter I consists of background of the study, reason for choosing the topic, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study and outline of the study. Chapter II consists of general concept of film, element of film, types of film, advantages of film in teaching writing, film as visual aid in teaching writing, importance of writing, general concept of writing, elements of writing, steps in writing, writing in second language classroom, general concept of
narrative text, generic structure of narrative text, rules of narrative, teaching writing of a narrative text, action research. Chapter III consists of research design, subject of the study,
instrument of the study, test, data collection, method of analyzing data, preparing the observation. Chapter IV consists of the analysis of the test and the analysis of the interview.
Chapter V consists of conclusion and suggestion.
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
A film is one of the visual aids that can be used in a writing class. It makes lessons more fun. It can also be used to create situation for writing classes more clearly, that the students have big enthusiasm in teaching learning process in writing class. (Harmer, 2001:282)
2.1 General Concept of Film
Film, as stated in Microsoft Encarta (2006), is a series of images that are projected into a screen to create the illusion of motion. Furthermore, motion pictures are also called movies, film or cinema, are one of the most popular forms of entertainment, that have people to immerse themselves in an imaginary world for a short period of time. But movies or film can also teach people about history, science, human behavior and any other subjects. Some films combine entertainment with instruction, makes the learning process more enjoyable. In all its forms, cinema is an art as well as a business, and those who make motion pictures take great pride in their creation. Motion pictures are recorded using specially designed cameras that capture the images on rolls of film. After being processed and printed, the film is run through a projector, which shines light through the film so that the images are sparked on a screen. Most movies have accompanying sound. The functions of film are to educate, entertain, enlighten and inspire the
audiences, and in this case the writer tried to use film or movies in the teaching and learning process of narrative text writing. The writer thought that film can also be used as an alternative method in teaching narrative text writing, because the student will get a new experience in their class that is quite different from their daily experience in their class, and for the teacher a film can be used as an alternative method in teaching that is suitable with their classroom situation. Another opinion about film given by Summer (1992: 476), film is;
1) A roll of material which is sensitive to light and which is used in camera for taking photographs or moving pictures for the cinema
2) A story, play, etc. recorded on film to be shown in the cinema, on television, etc. Meanwhile, Kirkpatrick (1993: 495) defines film as a series of connected cinematographic images projected on a screen. Coulson (1978:622) states that film is story, incident, etc. recorded on film in, moving pictures. In addition, Lorimor (1995:506) states that films can record culture, and they can treat social or political issues and other aspect of societies to see aspect of the world that are difficult or impossible to observe with naked eyes. Based on the definition of film I can conclude that film is a work combining a story, scenes, history, incident, and also music, it is recorded on film shown as a motion picture in a cinema, TV, etc.
2.1.1 Elements of Film
According to Bordwell, a filmmaker has to prepare some basic elements in making a good film. They are script, actors, sets, costumes, aspect ratio lighting, sound, special effects, music and sound effect.
Most films are based on written screen plays, which can be adapted from material from other media, such as plays, novels or can be written originally for the screen.
Actors have a very important part in making a film successful in market. They have to be totally involved with the story. They have to act as if they experience the story themse lves.
c) Sets There are two basic kinds of set, the natural and studio constructed.
Most members of the audience are not able to differentiate, because the skillful of the filmmakers can create desirable illusions as various and wonderful as they want.
The clothes people wear reveal much about them, clothes can indicate social, economics, and occupational status and express individual personality.
e) Aspect ratio
The term aspect ratio and format refer to proportions of the film frame. The choice of aspect ratio is crucial to the final ‘look’ of the film. A story set in the open expanse of the desert or the sea, for example, will have more power if the aspect ratio makes it possible to capture that expanse visually. But if a wide screen forma t is used for dialogue scenes, in which one looks at first at one character in close up and then moves to another.
Lighting in a film is generally manipulated as to amount, contrast, angle and the kind. Filmmakers talk about two kinds of key lighting; high key and low key High key lighting tends to bring objects in the background or different planes of action into relatively sharp focus. Low-
key lightning generally requires the use of light from several sources rather than from a single major source, such as the sun. Contrast is important to the effect of lighting generally, the higher
the contrast is, the more vivid the emotional tone and three-dimensional effect of the images will be.
g) Special effect
Specia l effects cinematography is one of the most complex elements in the creation of a film. It ranges from rear screen projection, in which previously photographed material is projected in back of the actors, to the use of elaborate optical benches in which photographed material is re-short to produce entirely new results.
Most film viewers know that contemporary films use music in various ways, but few are aware of the extents to produce its effects emotionally and usually ‘blends in’, film music often not consciously noted. Musical usage can range from a stringer –a sharp, usually loud chord that accentuates surprise, revolution, or tenor-to a lush string section playing during a tender or passionate love scene to convey the emotions of two peoples. Music can totally change the mood of scene, rendering it comic, and serious, or deeply disturbing, depending on the filmmaker’s intent.
i) Sound effect
Sound effect involves not only noises that are directly related to what is seen on the screen, such as gunfire, storms, water, and wind. They can also be used to add to the mood and tone of scenes without being directly motivated by the action. With the increasing development of electronic music and varieties of amplified sound, the lines between naturalistic sound effects, music, and electronically generated sound that is used purely for emotional impact have blurred. Bordwell (57:1997) From Brodwell’s opinion, the writer can conclude that the element of film are Script ,actors ,sets ,costumes, dialogue, aspect ratio, lighting, special effect and music.
2.1.2 Types of Film
Bordwell and Thompson (1997:50) defined the types of movie or film as follow;
(1) Documentary film
A documentary film supports to present factual information about the world outside the film. As a type of films, documentaries present themselves as factually trustworthy. According to Bordwell and Thompson (1997:44) there are two types of documentary films, they are;
a. Compilation films; produced by assembling images from archival sources.
b. Direct cinema; recording an on going event ‘as it happens’ with minimal interference by the filmmaker.
(2) Fictional film
A fictional film presents imaginary beings, places or events. Yet, if a film is fictional, that does not mean that it is completely unrelated actuality. For one thing, not everything shown or implied by the fiction films needs to be imaginary, a typical fictional film stages its events; they are
designed, planned, rehearsed, filmed and refilmed. In a fictional film the agents are portrayed or depicted by an intermediate, not photographed directly in documentary.
(3) Animated film
Animated films are distinguished from live-action ones by the unusual kinds of work that are done at production stage. Animation films do not do continuously filming outdoor action in the real time, but they create a series of images by shooting one frame at a time.
(4) Experimental or avant-grade film
Some filmmakers set out to create films that challenge orthodox notion of what movies can show and how it can show it. Experimental films are made for many reasons, they are;
1) The filmmakers want to express personal experience or view point,
2) The filmmakers may also want to explore some possibilities of
the medium it self,
3) The experimental filmmakers may tell no story but they may create a fictional story that will usually challenge the viewer.
2.1.3 Advantages of Film in Teaching Writing
Harmer (2002:282) states that the advantages of using film in teaching and learning process are:
1. Seeing language - in- use
One of the main advantages of film is that students do not just hear language, they see it too. This grea tly aids comprehension, since for example, general meaning and moods are often conveyed though expression, gesture and other visual clues. Thus we can observe how intonation can match facial expression. All such, paralinguistic features give valuable meaning clues and help viewers to see beyond what they are listening to, and thus interpret the text more deeply.
2. Cross – cultural awareness.
A film uniquely allows students to look at situations far beyond their classrooms. This is especially useful if hey want to see, for example, typical British ‘body language ‘ when inviting someone out, or how American speak to waiters. Film is also of great values in giving students a
chance to see such things as what kinds of food people eat in other countries and what they wear.
3. The power of creation
When the students make their own film as media in teaching and learning proc ess, they are given the potential to create something memorable and enjoyable. The camera operators and directors suddenly have considerable power. The task of filmmaking can provoke genuine
creative and communicative uses of the language, with students finding themselves doing new things in English.
For all the reasons so far mentioned, most students show an increased level of interest when they have a chance to see language in use as well as hear it, and when this is coupled with interesting tasks.
2.1.4 Film as Visual Aids in Teaching Writing
As a good teacher, we need to use visual aids as a method in teaching and learning process because by using visual aids, teacher can give new atmosphere in their class so that the students have a big enthusiasm in teaching learning process, besides visual aid can help students master the material that the teacher gives to them. From Heaton’s state ment above the writer can conclude that besides the other language skills (reading, listening, and speaking), writing is one of language skills that is more complex and difficult than the others. Because students must mastering the grammar and vocabulary. The students must have concept of writing not only in their brain but they also have to translate it in writing language, and it is difficult to write concepts that exist in our brain. So more students assume that writing is a difficult lesson and the result is that the student did not want to study writing or make a text of writing. It is important for teacher to find a method that can make students easily master the material and they can also enjoy the writing class. The writer hopes that film can be an alternative method in teaching narrative texts writing. There are many lots of methods of teaching that can be applied in
teaching and learning process such as using pictures, song, card, games, film, drama and more methods that the teacher can use. This method can help the students and teacher in teaching and learning process. The English teacher can use any kinds of method or visual aid but they must remember that the method must be suitable with their classroom situation, it must be able to make the students feel comfortable and enjoy the lesson so they can easily master the material.
He also had opinion in his book, Visual Aid for Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (1965; 41), that the use of any kind of methods has goals to give the students the opportunity to express their own idea, using the language pattern that they have learned. The function of using all kinds of method of opportunity in using English in a way that enables them to express their ideas, interest feeling and needs, clearly, correctly and confidently. From that statement the writer can conclude that visual aids are very important and useful in teaching learning process so that students will be more enthusiastic in learning writing in classroom.
2.2 Importance of Writing
Writing, as one of the language skills, has given an important contribution to human work. There are so many records of recent activities that we can read today, which can also be read in the future. Some important features of writing activities that are usually done by people are as follows:
(1) Teachers write some important things on the black board, or students may
write some notes that are dictated by the teacher. (2) Lots of people who are going to apply for job in offices write application letters. Today, many companies ask applicants to write their forms in English. An applicant must be fluent both in spoken and written English. (3) Many organizations or foundations get offers from foster parents from foreign countries for some students who have good achievement in their study. The student who is going to be selected is asked first to write an essay in English about their country (in this case Indonesian students).
For those who get the opportunity to win the selection are asked to write in English to their foster parents at least once a month; therefore, they need to have ability to write in an acceptable English.
2.2.1 General Concept of Writing
Generally, writing can be interpreted as the act of forming or tracing a character on paper or other suitable materials with a pen or pencil. Rivers (1968:242) distinguished writing from other skills according to the form, it was from the simplest form to the most highly developed one. From its simplest one, writing can be conceived as the act of putting down in conventional graphic from something that had been spoken. Another definition is given by Michael (1981:10) that writing could be a systematical visible and permanent representa tion of the auditory and
transient phenomena of speech, Byrne (1980:24) defines that writing is a primary means of recording speech, even though it must be acknowledged as a secondary medium of communication According to Enre (1988:148) the aims of writing are:
a) Desire to explain or to inform
b) Desire to tell something as it was looked and heard
c) Desire to tell something about something happened
d) Desire to convince someone
Mean while, Flower suggests a more elaborate definition Flower, states:
Writing is a social act that can only occur within a specific situation. It is therefore influenced both by the personal attitudes and social experiences that the writer brings to writing and the impacts of the particular political and institutional context in which it interviews, analyses of surrounding practices and other techniques, researchers seek to develop more complete accounts to local writing contexts (1989:54). In line with Flower, Nystrand also states that writing is a matter of elaborating text in accordance with what the writer can reasonably assume
that the reader knows and expects. Nystrand states: Writing is a matter of elaborating text in accordance with what the writer can reasonably assume that the reader knows and expects, and
the process of reading is a matter of predicting text in accord withwhat the reader assumes about the writer’s purpose (1989: 75). Meanwhile, Meyers says that writing is a way to produce language when you do and when you speak. Writing is communicating with others in a
verbal way. Meyers states: Writing is a way to produce language, which you do naturally when
you speak. Writing is communicating with others in a verbal way. Writing is also an action-a process of discovering and organizing your ideas, putting them on a paper and reshaping and revising them (2005: 2). Harmer in How to Teach Writing states “Writing is a process that what
we write is often heavily influenced by the constraints of genres, then these elements have to be present in learning activities” (2004: 86). Quoted Plato’s statement that “Written language addresses the reader when its author is absent. Written language has no capacity to respond”
(2004:154). Randal Holme, states, “Writing is an ability to make a form of words
that in general it may have a higher truth value than the fact that it has set it down” (2004:160).
From the definitions above the writer can conclude that writing is a way to produce language that comes from our thought. By using writing, we can share our idea, feeling or anything that exist in our mind. It is written on a paper or a computer screen. It is influenced both by the personal attitudes and social experiences that the writer brings to writing and the impacts of the particular political and institutional contexts. It is also a process that what we write is influenced by the constraints of genre and have to be present in learning activities. Writing will be read whenever the author is absent. Writing is also an ability to make a form of words that have a higher value.
2.2.2 Elements of Writing
Harris stated that (1969:68-69) there are four elements of writing, there are:
a. Mastering Vocabulary/Diction
He stated that vocabulary’s mastering / diction played an important role in a language, especially in the writing activity. The choice of vocabulary could describe the writer’s knowledge. The number of words that is mastered by a writer could indicate tha t he/she mastered a number of concepts, mastery of vocabulary can improve by reading and listening a lot. Furthermore, Keraf (1982:16) said that the vocabulary’s mastering could be observed from two sides, those were
Quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative vocabulary’s mastering is defined as a must for the
students to master the vocabulary in a language as much as possible, in this case, the students should master the vocabulary actively, it means that they are able to use vocabulary in communication. Qualitative vocabulary’s mastering consist of knowledge, meaning of words and structure of words, Qualitative vocabulary’s mastering will support the students to choose the
appropriate words, so it can support the effectiveness of using language. The mastering of quantitative and qualitative vocabulary is a must. The mastering of quantitative vocabulary is the first demand to broaden a draft, while the mastering of qualitative vocabulary is the second demand to deepen the knowledge of words.
b. Mastering Grammatical Rule’s / Sentence Structure
Mastering grammatical rule’s / sentence structure consists of phonology, morphology and syntax. Phonological rules don’t have any roles in the writing activity, while morphological and syntactical rules play some important roles in the writing activity, it deals with the effective use of the right affixes, conjunction, prefixes and composition, the structure of the sentences.
Coherence means that the writer’s paragraph is easy to read and understand because the supporting sentences are in some kind of logical order and the ideas are connected by use of appropriate transition signals.
One of the most difficult and confusing aspects of the English language is spelling system. There is often a discrepancy between the pronunciation of a word and its spelling. They cannot always know how to spell a word by its pronunciation or how to pronounce it by its spelling, to avoid this problem, the students are suggested to open dictionaries before they are going to write.
2.2.3 Steps in Writing
There are six steps how to write well:
1. Exploring Ideas
First, writing involves discovering ideas. Before writing, let our mind explore freely. Second, record those thoughts by writing whatever you can. As in speaking, you must have something to say, a reason form saying it, and someone to whom you talk.
a. Your subject
Before writing, ask yourself, “what is the subject or the material do students want to write about and what do you know about it?” Choose a subject that you care about and know about (or find out). Then you say it more clearly and confidently. You must select and then narrow your subject from the general that you will practice doing in the exercises that follow.
b. Your purpose
After deciding the subject, now ask yourself, “What is the purpose?” Communicating always has a purpose: to inform, to persuade, or to entertain or may be to do all the three. You could inform, persuade, or entertain your classmates with examples unusual you have experienced at your job.
c. Your audience
After deciding your subject and your purpose, ask yourself,
“Who is the audience?” The answer will determine what you say about your subject and what purpose you hope to achieve. You may need to provide a lot of evidence to persuade a reader who does not agree with your opinion, but provide far less for someone who tends to agree with
you (Flower, 1989:69-71).
2. Writing draft I
The second step of the writing process involves writing your thoughts on paper or on the computer. Don’t worry about making mistakes because you will probably change your mind and your wording later. This step is called writing draft I. It is a time to relax, write quickly and begin
organizing your thoughts. These are some steps of writing draft I:
One way to capture your thought is by brainstorming, or listing thought as they come to you. You might brainstorm twice or three times to generate more ideas
In clustering, you write your subject in the middle of the page and then circle it. You write related ideas around the circle as they come to you. Then you circle the ideas and connect them to your subject circle. These related ideas are like branches.
c. Free writing
Another way to get started is by free writing. You simply write about the subject without worrying about sentence, structure, spelling, logic, and grammar. Write, as you would speak so that you can get your ideas down fast (Flower, 1989:71-74).
After you have put your ideas into words, you can begin organizing them. This process involves:
a. Selecting, subtracting, and adding You have to think again about your purpose and audience.
What goals do you want to accomplish- to inform, persuade or entertain? What point do you want to make? And what should you tell your readers so that you can accomplish the goals? It is better that you return to your pre writing and do the following:
1. Underline or highlight the best ideas of your brainstorming list, putting related ideas together. Add to the list as more ideas come to you and remove or ignore the parts that are not related to your choices.
2. Choose the part of the clustering diagra m that has the best ideas.
Do the second clustering that explores those ideas in greater detail. Ignore the part of the original diagram that is not related to your choice.
3. Circle or highlight the best part of your pre writing. Do a second even a third free writing on them? Ignore the parts of each free writing that are not related to your choice and focus more
specifically on your subject and add more details (Flower, 1989:75-76).
After selecting, subtracting, and adding, the writer can make an informal outline (Flower, 1989:76).
4. Writing revision I
You have done some writing revision I, selected your best ideas, expanded them, and arranged them in some reasonable order. Now you can begin the first paragraph. Don’t worry about being perfect, so write fast as if you were speaking to your readers. Some steps for revision can be stated as follows:
a. Say something before you write it.
b. Do fast handwriting or computer typing.
c. Use only one side of the paper.
d. Leave wide margins and double space to make room for changes.
e. Resave your work every five or ten minutes on the computer
5. Revising the Draft
Revising is one of the most important steps in writing, especially for people who write in a second language. Revising means to improve what you have already written. When you revise, you examine how well your first draft makes its point and achieves its purpose for its audience.
That may require rearranging ideas, developing further ideas, cutting out ideas that do not support your point, and change the wording of your sentences.
These are some tips for revising:
a. Make notes in the margins or write new material on separate sheets of paper.
b. Circle words you think you misspelled or that you want to change later.
c. Tape or staple additions where you want them to go.
d. On the computer, use cut and paste or insert commands to move them to a new page.
e. Print out a double space copy for revisions: look over and revise in
pencil (Flower, 1989:78).
6. Producing the revision II
There are two steps in producing revision II, they are:
After you have revised your paragraph, you can edit your work. Check it carefully. Focus on grammar, words choice, verb forms, punctuation, and spelling. Read the paper more than once.
Copy it over or print it out again with all your corrections. This draft should be neat and should represent your best effort.
The final stage in the revision process is proofreading. That means carefully reading your draft more than once to check tha t your revisions and editorial changes.
2.2.4 Writing in the Second Language Classroom
According to what has been stated by the researchers of Cumming upon the students of Senior High School in Japan Relc Journal (1995:33), which is quoted by Limbong (1997:27) in her thesis entitled “ Suggested Materials for Teaching Writing ”, writing proficiency in L2 (second language) is influenced by the ability of the students in acquiring L2. In this case, it is clear then, that writing ability can be learned like the mastery of a language that can also be learned.
As the writer discussed on the previous chapter, writing skill is complex and difficult to teach since it does not only mean to put down a graphic from a piece of paper. It involves at least 5 components as stated byHarris (1969:68-69) in his book “ Testing English as a Second Language Those components are:
Firstly is on content. It consists of the substance of writing and the ideas expressed. Secondly is on the form used. It is about the organization of the content. Thirdly is on the grammar, the employment of grammatical form and syntactic pattern. Fourth is on the style. It is about the choice of the\ structures and lexical items to give a particular tone or flavor to writing. Fifth
is on the mechanic, the use of the graphic convention of the language. Another component pointed out by Christina consists of three elements as follow “We have three major teaching points in the writing composition: 1) correct form of the language on the sentence, 2) mechanics
of punctuation, and 3) content organization” (1976:205). For those reasons above, most of the Senior High School students find writing to be confusing and making them give up.
To encourage the students in writing, an English teacher plays an important role to develop their ability. The teacher should be patient to support them. He or she has to give them a lot of trainings and practices how to express their ideas. He or she has to try to find ways of composing writing that is easy for them. By doing so, students will not consider that writing
makes them stressed.
2.3 General Concept of Narrative Text
A narrative is a story. A narrative text is a writing that tells about a story. We use narrative writing when we tell a friend about something interesting that happened to you at work or in school, when you tell someone a joke, or if you write about the events of the day in the privacy of a diary or journal.
Parera (1993:5) had opinion that a narrative was one of the forms of developing writing, for example characters told the history of something based on the development of writing from time to time Meanwhile, Keraf (1989; 136) had an opinion that the narrative was
a form of composition, which had the main objectives. In the form of activities that were tied together to become an event that happened in a certain time According to Charles et al (1985:129) most narratives have the following characteristics:
a. It tells story of an event or events
b. The events are usually arranged in a chronological order, in the order in which they occurred in time.
2.3.1 Generic Structure of a Narrative Text
Derewianka (1990: 32) states that the steps for constructing a narrative are;
In which the writer tells the audience about who the character in the story are, where the story is taking plac e, and when the action is happen. (Can be a paragraph, a picture or opening chapter)
The story is pushed along by a series of events, during which we usually expect some sort of complication or problem to arise. It just would not be so interesting if something unexpected did not happen. This complication will involve the main character(s) and often serves to (temporally) toward them, for reaching their goal. Narratives mirror the complications we face in life and tend to reassure us that they are resolvable.
In a “satisfying “narrative, a resolution of the complication is brought about. The complication may be resolved for better or for worse, but it is rarely left completely unresolved (although this is of course possible in certainly types of narrative, which leave us wondering (how is the end?)
Based on the statement above, the writer concludes that the generic structures of recount are: Firstly is an orientation. The readers are introduced to the main characters and possibly some minor characters. Some indication is generally given of where the action and when an action happened. Secondly is complication. This is where the writer tells how the problem arises, sometimes something unexpected events will happen. Thirdly is resolution. It is an optional closure of event. The complication may be resolved for better or for worse, but it is rarely left completely unresolved. The writer can conclude that resolution is the end of a story. Furthermore, the generic structure of narrative text can be shortened
as; orientation, complication and resolution.
2.3.2 Rules of a Narrative
Derewianka (1990: 32) also states several common grammatical
patterns of a recount, they are; specific, often individual participants with
defined identities. Major participants are human, or sometimes animals with
human characteristics; use of action verbs to refer to events; use of past tense
to locate events in relation to speaker’s or writer’s time; use of conjunctions
and time connectives to sequence of events; use of adverbs and adverbial of
phrases to indicate place and time; use of adjectives to describe nouns.
From the statements above, the writer can conclude that the rules of a
recount text consist of; focus on individual participants, use of nouns and
pronouns to identify people, animals and things involved; focus on a
temporal of sequence of pictures; use of action verbs (material processes) to
refer to events; use of past tense to locate events in relation to writer’s or
speaker’s time; use adverbs or adverbial of phrases to indicate pla ce and
time; and the use of material or action clauses.
2.3.3 Teaching Writing of a Narrative Text
As an international language
English is also taught in Indonesia as a
foreign language. The goal of English language teaching in Indonesia, as
stated in the 12 December 1967 decree of the Indonesian Ministry of
Education and Culture, is to give students a working knowledge of the
English language with the following detailed objectives in the order of
importance: first is to develop students’ effective reading ability, second is to
facilitate students to understand spoken language, third is to develop students’
writing skill, and to develop students’ speaking skill.
One of the objectives of English language teaching is to give
students an effective writing ability. Learning to write is a process of
discovering and organizing ideas, putting them on paper and reshaping and
Many students find writing to be the most difficult lesson since they
have to write in English to produce an English text. They have to write down
what they think of in their mind and state it on a paper by using a correct
A well-written story lets your readers respond to some events; even
they can almost feel the same. The action details a nd dialogues put the readers
in the scene and make it happen for them. Moreover, it often engages readers’
emotion so powerfully. It can play a large role on other types of writing.
To figure the problems out, the writer tries to use a film of narrative
text in teaching written cycle. Students can feel more relaxed in learning
writing and it will be easier for them to produce a narrative text.
The writer used this film in teaching narrative writing because she
thought that, she needed to use a new method or visual aid in teaching and
learning process so that the teacher can create an interesting material for
is the forty-third animated feature in the Disney
animated features canon. A traditionally animated film, it was produced by
the Florida satellite of Walt Disney Feature Animation and released on
November 1, 2003, by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. It
was Originally titled
, it was the third and final Disney animated feature
produced primarily by the Feature Animation studio at Disney – MGM
Studios in Orlando Florida.
, a Film
1) Directed by : Aaron Blaise and Robert Walker.
2) Produced by : Igor Khait and Chuck Williams
written by :
a) Lorne Cameron,
b) David Hoselton,
c) Tab Murphy,
d) Save Bencich (screens play),
e) Broose Johnson (story),
f) Jeffrey Stepakoff (additional writer, story)
4) The movie stars the voices of:
a. Joaquin Phoenix as Kenai
b. Jeremy Suarez as Koda
c. Rick Moranis as Rutt
d. Dave Thomas as Tuke
e. Jason Raize as Denahi
f. D.B. Sweeney as Sitka
g. Joan Copeland as Tanana
h. Michael Clarke Duncan as Tug
5) Music by : Phil Collins and Mark Mancina
a) Great spirit
c) On my way
e) No way out
f) Look through my eyes
6) Distributed : Walt Disney Pictures
7) Release date(s) : November 1, 2003
8) Running time : 85 minutes
10) Preceded : Treasure planet (2002)
11) Followed by : Home on the Range (2004)
12) Specifications : technicolor, 35 mm1, 85:1 (partly) and
2.35:1 (partly) (color, Dolby
13) Genre : animation, fantasy, comedy, drama
14) MPAA rating : G
2.4.2 Elements of
1. Kenai: the youngest of three brothers who gets turned into a
bear, to teach him to see through their eyes.
2. Denahi: the middle brother
3. Sitka: the oldest brother
4. Koda: a wisecracking ear cub who helps Kenai on his journey
to where the lights touch the earth.
5. Rutt: a comic Canadian moose
6. Tuke: another comic Canadian moose
7. Tanana: the shaman-woman of Kenai’s tribe,
8. Tug: wise old bear
b. Setting : long time ago in a post – ice age North America.
c. Theme : how to be a real mature man.
d. Costumes : clothes that usually used in a post – ice age North
e. Special effect : technicolor, 35 mm1, 85:1 (partly) and 2.35:1
(partly) (color, Dolby digital sound)
f. Sound effect :Dolby digital sound
Dialogue :use English language
2.4.3 Summary of
Long time ago in a post ice North America, there were three brothers
named Kenai, Denahi and Sitka. Denahi the middle brother, Sitka the oldest,
work hard. They think that Kenai should work more and play less. Kenai, the
youngest, hates bears because they fight for the same food, overtake the land,
and ruin his coming-of-age ceremony. Each brother was given his own totem
when they came of age: Sitka, the eagle of guidance and Denahi, the wolf of
wisdom. At the ceremony, Kenai is presented by the bear of love. Kenai
questions the totem he has been given: “you think love has anything to do
with being a man?!”
When Sitka is killed in a battle by a bear that Kenai provoked,
Tanana, the tribal shaman woman, officiate a funeral rite for Sitka. Afterward,
Kenai throws away his totem and ignores the village teachings of brotherhood
with animals. He sets out to hunt the bear for revenge and eventually kills it.
Angered by Kenai’s actions, the great spirits, through the spirit of Sitka,
transform him into a bear. Unfortunately his other brother, Denahi, who was
pursuing Kenai to stop him, does not realize what has happened. He finds
Kenai’s torn clothes and believes the bear he sees took his brother’s life. In
grief, he remembers Kenai’s words to him and, as he had done.
Kenai falling into the river, Kenai awakens on the shore and in the
presence of Tanana, who eases him through his initial shock at his change.
Although she cannot understand his bear speech, she advises Kenai to find the
mountain where the light touch the earth so that he can ask Sitka’s spirit to
change him to the former figures, and then she disappears without giving him
directions. To Kenai’s surprise, he finds he can talk with the other animals but
the only animals who are willing to talk to him are two sibling mice, named
Rutt and Tuke, who are more interested in cracking jokes at Kenai’s claims to
have been a man than helping him. A long the way, Kenai meets a talkative, a
bear cub named Koda who saves him from a trap, and asks him to accompany
him on the way to the salmon run where the bears gather to fish near the
mountain were the light touch the earth.
What follows is a journey in which Kenai, Denai don’t know who
is now hunting him, grows rather fond of the irresistible Koda whom he
learns shares his spiritual beliefs. This in turn puts his hatred of bears in a
stark perspective that forces him to reconsider, especially when he learns that
koda sees humans as the same sort of dangerous monsters as he himself once
believe bears to be. This culminates when they finally reach the salmon run
and Kenai has the awkward experience of being surrounded by bears. Yet, the
bears quickly accept him and he in turn learns about the loving community of
these animals that makes his hate seem so foolish even as he leans to enjoy
This contentment is shattered when Koda tells the story of his
separation from his mother. Kenai is aghast as he puts the pieces together and
realizes the story is about the fight he and his brothers had with the bear.
Kenai realizes to his horror that the bear he killed was Koda’s mother.
Distraught at the harm he has done to a cub he has grown to love, Kenai flees
the gathering. The next morning koda follows and asks what’s wrong with
great shame and remorse, but also with great moral courage Kenai confesses
.At this traumatic revelation, Koda is left grief stricken and runs away in loss
and betrayal while ignoring kenai’s apologizes and please for forgiveness.
With nothing left to keep him with bears, Kenai scales the
mountain to contact the spirit of Sitka. Koda mourns alone, but then has a
chance encounter with the squabbling Tuke and Rutt, who reconcile because
of their brotherhood, which makes Koda realize the importance of is
friendship with Kenai. Meanwhile, Denahi finally tracks down Kenai; in the
ensuing fight, Koda, having forgiven Kenai, rushes in to help at a critical
moment in fight. Kenai struggles to protect koda and is willing to sacrifice
himself to save the cub, much as Koda’s mother had done. With this selfless
act, Kenai shows that he has profoundly changed for the better and Sitka, who
had been watching everything in the form of an eagle, changes Kenai back
into a human.
Yet, while Kenai has regained is humanity, he can no longer talk
with Koda, a cub who is now orphaned yet again by the bear he had come to
accept as his brother. Rather than abandon koda, Kenai tells Sitka that Koda
needs him. Denahi calls Kenai “little brother” instead of “baby brother” and
Sitka transforms Kenai (by his choice) back into a bear. He and his brothers
hug together and say goodbye while Koda and his mother’s spirit do the
The film ends with Kenai as a bear, accompanied by Koda, being
welcomed back by his tribe and pressing his paw print tom he cliff wall,
which bears the handprints of countless generations of other tribe members
who also fulfilled the calling of the their totem animals.
2.5 Action Research
A form of research, which is becoming increasingly significant in
language education, is action research. This research has been defined in a
number of ways. Kemmis and Mc. Taggart (in Nunan, 1993:17) argue:
The three defining characteristics of action research are firstly it is
carried out by practitioners (for our purpose, classroom teacher) rather than
outside researcher. Secondly, it is collaborated. Thirdly, it is aimed at
They said further, “Action research is a group of activities and a
piece of descriptive research carried out by a teacher in his or her own
classroom, without changing the phenomenon under investigation.
Best (1978:12) states that action research focuses on the immediate
application, not on the development of theory, nor upon general application.
From all definitions above, the writer concludes that action research
is an action in a research, which can be done by the teacher, researcher, and
the teacher with his/her colleague, etc. This involves a group of students to
improve learning and teaching-learning process or to enhance the students’
understanding of the lesson.
METHODS OF INVESTIGATION
Methods of investigation are significant and important parts of all
scientific activities. They control investigation of the theoretical and applied
aspects of mathematics, statistics, measurement and ways of obtaining and
analyzing data (Kerlinger, 1979: 308).
According to Suharsimi (1998: 11) a field research or fields’ study,
such as: an educational research can be carried out at schools, factories or
hospitals to achieve educational objectives, etc.
In this chapter, the writer discusses the frame related to the methodology in
analyzing the problem of the study.
3.1 Research Design
A research method used in this study is an action research. This
research will be conducted in the classroom. This activity contains several
cycles. Each cycle has four elements: planning, acting, observing and
According to Elliot (1996: 70-74) there is a basic cycle of activities.
The activities can be elaborated as follows:
(1) Identifying initial idea
The initial idea refers to a state of situation one wishes to change
or to improve on. In this research the initial idea is thought that there will
be a change by narrative text being made.
Planning is a follow up for identifying the text to find out the
solution of the problems. This research is intended to find out the
students’ response during learning process, the students’ improvement of
writing by narrative text, the writer will conduct four cycles of research to
know the improvement of writing by narrative text. To know students’
ability in producing the narrative text, the writer asks the students to
produce a narrative text.
Implementing is the performing of planned action. The
researcher can change the plans after conducting one cycle when they are
After conducting and observing the implementing cycle, the next
step that the writer will do is evaluating. The evaluating is a fact-finding
about the result of the action. It is an analysis to find out the influence of
the narrative text for improving the students in learning writing.
3.2 Subject of the Study
The writer holds the classroom research at SMA N 10 Semarang. It
is located in Jl. Kapas Utara Raya Genuk Indah, Semarang. The writer
chooses the second grade of SMA N 10 Semarang. There are seven classes on
the average, each class has 40 students.
The writer chose them as the subject of the study based on some
reasons, they are; the students are all in the same grade, the students had been
studying English for some periods of time, the students are studying narrative
text at the same time as the writer does an experiment at school.
In this case, the subjects of the study of the research are the tenth
grade students of SMA N 10 Semarang, in the academic year of 2006/2007.
The researcher got the data from the registration office that showed there are
3.3 Choice of Population and Sample
Population is people or other things discussed in the research
(Suharsimi, 2002: 108). Furthermore, she state that that population is the
total number of the subjects of an investigation (1996: 102).
According to Hannagan in Selinger (1988:431), population is a
group of people (or items) about which information is being collected.
In a word, population is a number of groups interest to the
researcher, a number of group, which she or he would like to find out
results of the study be reports.
In this case, the subject of the research was the tenth grade student
of SMA N 10 Semarang in the academic year of 2006/2007. The
researcher got the data from the registration office showing that there are
280 students of the eleventh grade students of SMA N 10 Semarang.
The population of the research
Based on the table above, the population in this study is all of the
tenth grade students of SMU N 10 Semarang, which consists of 280
3.3.2 Technique of Sampling
Suharsimi says that a sample is a small group that is observed and a population is defined as all members of any well-defined class of people, events or subjects. Thus, sample is a part of population that is observed (2002: 108). According to Sax (1979) a sample is a limited number of elements selected from a population to represent the population. It means that it
requires that all relevant characteristics of the population should be known.
Suharsimi (1989:103) also states that a sample is a set of some, not
all of the observation or other things.
But on the other hand, Best (1981: 8) says that a sample is a small
proportion of a number of populations selected for observation and
In a word, sample is a limited number of ele ments from a
proportion a number of populations to represent population.
According to Gay (1987:104) random sampling is the process of
selecting a sample in such a way that all individuals in the defined
population have an equal and independent chance of being selected for the
sample. In other words, every sample has the same probability of being
selected and selection of one individual will not affect selection of another
Furthermore, he says:
In general, random sampling involves defining the population,
identifying each member of the population, and selecting individuals
for the sample on completely chance basis. One way to do this is to
write each individual’s name on a separate slip of paper, place all
the slips from the container until the desired number of individuals
is selected (1987: 104).
The writer will choose one class of the students from the whole class
as sample in this study. Gay (1987:98) states that study needs 30 students
for each experimental group as a sample can already represent for the
whole population of the study. Therefore, the writer will select 40 students
in her research.
3.4 Instrument of the Study
Before collecting the data, the writer selects a film of narrative text
as the instrument of the study. To make sure that the instrument is valid
enough, the writer read Competence-Based Curriculum first. This curriculum
states that the students are supposed to write a simple composition on a
narrative text by using a film as the instrument. Thus the content of the test
offered in the research is valid.
The writer will also conduct an evaluation to know how far the test
influence the students for improving their abilities in writing a narrative text
and to solve the difficulties that the students have in doing the test.
Harris (1969:70) says that in writing composition students can
cover up weakness by avoiding problems, for example the use of certain
grammatical patterns and lexical items they find difficult.
From the above advocated ideas, the writer decides to use
composition test to conduct the research. Before the students received
material and test, the writer had given the material and test to the teacher.
The test technique is used to measure how good the motivation of
the students in learning writing is. The tests that the writer will conduct are
pre test, test in each cycle and post-test. The pre-test is conducted for
checking whether or not the students can produce the narrative text well. The
assessment tests are used for knowing whether there is achievement of the
students in producing a narrative text. The post-test is used for knowing
whether or not the students can really produce a good text.
According to Kerlinger, it is possible, by definition, for a variable to
have only one value. It is then called a constant. We deal almost exclusively
with variables that have two or more values as stated by Suharsimi below:
A variable is defined as something that varies from one case to another.
The dependent variable is variable which one observes and measures to
determine the effect of the independent variable. Independent variable
(the major variable) is the variable, which is selected, manipulated and
measured by the researcher (Suharsimi, 2002:98).
In this research, there are two variables, they are: independent variable
(X) and dependent variable (Y). Independent variable is a variable that is
presumed to influence another variable. Dependent variable is a category that
is influenced by another category or that is the consequent (Kerlinger,
In this research, the dependent variable is the writing narrative text (X)
and the independent variable is about the film (Y).
3.4.3 Source of Data
In her efforts to find the solutions of the problems, the writer needs
some data. The required data and information will be obtained from two main
(1) Library Research
Library research refers to the activity of using library facilities. The data
and information will be obtained through racing books on related subject
matters. She tries, as far as she can, to explore the cores of the textbooks,
jotting down important information and ideas from significant authors as
fundamental theories, which support her ideas for this writing. The results of
the library research are mostly presented in chapter II.
(2) Field Research
To get empirical data for her findings, the writer administered two tests;
they are vocabulary test and reading comprehension test. After conducting
the tests, the writer analyzed the data on the basic of the problems and the
objectives of the study.
3.5 Data Collection
This action research needs the data to support the investigation.
Elliot (1998:77-83) states that there is a list of techniques and methods, which
the writer used to gather evidence in the recognizing and monitoring phrases
of action research. They are diaries, profiles, document analysis, tape/ video
recording and transcript, using an outside observer, interviewing, running
commentary, shadow study, checklist, questionnaires, inventories,
triangulation, and analytic memos.
This research will use some of them, which are appropriate to the
school environment and can be done to support the action research. In
collecting the data, the writer will use observation form, pre-test and post-test.
The aims of using these techniques are to know the difficulties that the
students have in understanding narrative, to know to what extent the teaching
of narrative using a film can improve students’ writing skill, to gather
information and to find a simple way for the students to produce a text.
3.6 Method of Analyzing Data
Through scoring, the result of the students’ works will be useful to
depict students’ level of writing achievement. Since the purpose of the
research is to measure the students’ proficiency, the writer interprets the result
both statistically and non-statistically.
The writer used a formula by Heaton (1979:29) to interpret the
result statistically. The formula is as follow:
The total of the percentage
The average of the students’ result =
The number of the students
Then to interpret the students’ result non-statistically the writer
described the result of the pre-test, writing the first draft, writing the second
draft and writing the final copy in the next chapter.
3.6.1 Mode of Scoring
Scoring the students’ work is a step to obtain quantitative
information of each student. One of the ways to score or to evaluate the
students’ achievement in writing is a rating scale. In using the rating scale, the
scorer can make a rank order of the result of the students’ work based on
given categories to know which students have the high scores and which have
the lowest scores.
The following scheme of the rating scale is used to measure the
students’ achievement in their written product.
3.6.2 Classifying the Scores
The scores will become a more meaningful numerical data if they are
converted to numerical data, which will be processed to the scale of 0 to 100.
Then the processed scores will be used sequentially from the highest to the
lowest. It will be easier to know the position of a student in his/her group.
The measureme nt of the students’ achievement that is stated by
Harris (1969:134) will be interpreted as follows:
The measurement of the students’ achievement
(Taken from Harris)
3.6.3 Criterion of Assessment
The students’ success and failure in doing the activities planned above will be assessed by referring to the criterion issued by the Departmentof National Education (Depdiknas, 2003:25). The criterion says that a student
can be successful if he/she achieves 65% of the material and a class is
considered to be successful in mastering learning if they can achieve 85% of
the material presented. In this action research, the writer will use that
indicator to determine whether a cycle could be continued to the next cycle or
should be repeated by applying the arranged plan.
3.7 Preparing the Observation
To get data that used in this paper, the writer will use the score from
the students and also do some interview, the writer get into the class and use
several activity in order to get data from the students, here is the analysis of
3.7.1 First Part
In the first part, there were three parts; they were:
a) Building knowledge of the field,
b) Modeling of the text,
c) Join construction of the text
d) Independent construction of text (writing draft I and writing revision I).
3.7.2 Second Part
In this part the writer will discuss about:
1. Building knowledge of the field,
2. Modeling of the text,
3. Join construction of the text
4. Independent construction of text (writing draft II and writing revision II).
The writer will do the interview to the students and the purpose is to
know the difficulties faced by the students in writing narrative text. The
difficulties faced by the students could be seen in the students’ works and also
the writer will ask to the students about teaching by using a film, the
advantage and disadvantage of using a film for teaching – learning class
especially in writing class.
After doing an observation, the writer had some data, and there is the
analysis of the data.
4.1 First part
In the first part, the writer taught narrative without using a movie
as media in teaching writing of a narrative text, the writer only gave several
examples of narrative texts. In the first part, there were four steps; they were
building knowledge of the field, modeling of the text, joint construction of
text and independent construction of text. Here is the analysis of each step.
4.1.1 Building knowledge of the field
writer chose the second grade of Senior High school because they had ever
learnt narrative texts before. The class consisted of 40 students.
In this stage, building knowledge of the field, the purpose was to
introduce the material that is the meaning, the generic structure and the
lexiogrammatical feature of narrative, the other purpose of building knowledge of the field was to make the students interested in the material and
have enthusiasm to learnt narrative texts.
In this activity, the writer gave some questions related to the
material, among others was to introduce narrative texts. The writer also
elicited some vocabulary related to the materials and built up the student’s
insight to the material.
Two Thin Goat
, and for the second example the writer gave
a story entitled
The Lion and the Mouse
. The writer read the story three times
and discussed each paragraph. When discussing the story, the writer also
wrote clues based on the story on the board in order to make the student
easily understand the story, in this session the students also asked about the
vocabulary or anything related to the text.
In this activity, the writer and the students discussed the generic
structure of narrative text together based on the examples. The writer also
explained about the steps in writing so that the students knew the steps and
found it easy to produce narrative text well based on the steps they had
4.1.3 Join Construction of Text
2007. There were 40 students taking part in this activity. In this activity the
students started their activity with their friends in groups or pairs to finish or
discuss the exercises given by the writer.
There were two exercises, first, the writer gave a jumbled paragraph,
asked the students to work in group of three and the students had to arrange
the jumbled paragraph into a proper story. In this exercise the writer used a
Where Is My Jungle?
In the second exercise, the writer gave the students six pictures and
she asked the students to make a group consisting of three and they had to
make a story based on the pictures.
The purpose of join construction of text was to make the students
able to work in groups or in pairs, so they could learn how to develop a good
relation with other students and shared their ideas.
4.1.4 Independent Construction of Text
Independent construction of text was the last activity in the first part,
in this activity the students had to apply their knowledge of narrative
individually, the purpose of this activity was to measure how well the
students master the material and apply it.
There were two parts of independent construction of text, writing
draft I and writing revision I, here is the analysis of each part:
220.127.116.11 Writing Draft I
The purpose of this test was to check the students’ ability in
producing narrative text (whether the students could produce narrative text by
paying attention to the generic structure of the text well and produce a good
text or not).
There were 40 students who took the test. They had to produce a narrative
text based on their own experience they got from their teacher before. They
could choose the theme of the story by themselves.
In writing draft I, the writer found that the students were poor on the
content of their writing, this data could be seen in appendix 1
Based on the score of writing draft I, there are five language skill
scores ( fluency, grammar, vocabulary, content and spelling ) and the total
result of each score was 128 for fluency, 131 for grammar, 129 for
vocabulary, 127 for content and 128 for spelling. From that data the writer
concluded that the lowest total score that the students got in writing draft I
was on content (only 127 point), it was because the writer had not explained
in details about the theme that they had to choose. Besides they did not know
the right words to write down their ideas.
On the other hand, the highest scores that the students got in the
writing draft I was on the grammar (131 point). It means that the students had
learnt past tenses.
In order to know further about students’ achievement in details, the
writer used the following formula to find out the percentage of the students’
The students’ achievement result was 64, 3 %. According to the
Department of National Education, the criterion of the assessment in the
previous chapter, 64, 3% was said to be not successful.
The writer concluded that the students were not successful in
producing narrative text because:
a) They did not have any idea to write, so they were confused with what
they had to write,
b) They found it difficult to share ideas in their brain into a written
c) They also found it difficult to find out the right words.
18.104.22.168 Writing Revision I
The activity of the writing revision I was conducted on, Wednesday
. There were 40 students who taking the activity . In this activity
the writer gave back the students’ works in writing draft I, and asked them to
revise the mistakes they made. They might use a dictionary to check the
wrong spelling and they might discuss the mistakes they made with their
friends, the writer or the teacher. After knowing the mistakes, they had to
write revision I better than the draft I.
After the students made their revision and the result of the making
the revision shows that 4 students got 56, 8 students got 60, 4 students got 64,
3 students got 68, 4 students got 72, 11 students got 76, 5 students got 80 and
2 students got 84. From that data 11 students got 76, it means that most of
them could improve their ability in writing narrative texts. The detailed data
could be seen in the appendix 4
For the detailed explanation on writing revision I , the writer got data
from the five language skills and the total result of each score was 134 for
fluency, 133 for grammar, 144 for vocabulary, 147 for content and 142 for
spelling. Based on that data, the writer can conclude that the highest scores
that most of the students got a better way understanding on the content, if we
compare it with the score from writing draft I that only 127 point,
The percentage of the students ‘achievement in writing revision I was:
The total of the percentage
The achievement of writing revision I was 70%. According to the
criterion provided by Department of National Education, which was
presented in the previous chapter, 70% was said to be successful. Therefore, it ould be concluded that the second activity was successful and the result was
better than in writing the draft I.
4.2 Second Part
In the second part, the writer taught a narrative text by using a movie
as media in teaching writing narrative text, the writer showed the movie and
the students had to rewrite the story. In this second part, there were four steps;
they were building knowledge of the field, modeling of the text, joint
construction of text and independent construction of text. Here is the analysis
of each step.
4.2.1 Building Knowledge of the Field
This activity was conducted on Thursday, January 9
class consisted of 40 students.
The first step of this second part was building knowledge of the
field, the purpose of this step was to introduce the material. The writer had to
introduce about a narrative, the definition, general structure and also
lexiogrammatical of narrative. She also had to introduce the movie to the
The purpose of building knowledge of the field was to make the
students interested in the material and they had enthusiasm to learn narrative
texts and they also wanted to watch the movie.
In this activity the writer gave some questions related to the material
in this case the writer had to introduce narrative texts, the writer also had to
elicit the students’ response to the topic of narrative texts, for examples,
teacher asked the students about the materials:
The Conversation between Teacher and Students in the Building Knowledge of
the Field in the Second Part (about narrative text)
No The Writer The Students
Have you ever heard or written a
Yes, I‘ve ever heard about narrative
2 What’s the meaning of narrative? A text about a story.
3 Have you ever read or written a
Yes, I’ve ever read a narrative text.
4 Have you studied about a narrative
Yes, in the first grade and second
semester of Senior High School.
5 Do you know the generic structure
I don’t remember, mam
6 How many steps are there in
There’re four steps
7 Can you mention them? Orientation, complication and
8 What do you have to write in
It’s about the participants and the
setting of the story
9 How about complication? It talks about the rise of the problem
10 And resolution? Resolution talks about the ending of
11 What tense’s used in narrative Past tenses, mam
12 Can you mention adverbial words
Once upon a time, one day, long
time ago or yesterday.
that are usually used in narrative?
After the students understood and mastered the materials about
narrative, the next activity, the writer had to introduce the movie that would
be used as a media in writing narrative texts. The purpose of this activity, the
students have been interested to watch the movie. The writer also had to
evoke the imagination of the students especially about the movie, for
examples, teacher asked the students questions related to the movie:
The Conversation between Teacher and Students in the Building Knowledge of
the Field in the Second Part (about the movie)
No The Writer The Students
Do you like to watch a movie? Yes, I do.
2 Where do you usually watch a
In our house or in the cinema
3 Repeat after me “cinema”! cinema
4 Good, with whom do you usually
Family or with boy or girl friend
go to the cinema?
5 Have you ever watched
6 What’s the meaning of brother? Saudara laki-laki
7 Repeat after me “brother”! brother
8 Is it male or female? It’s male
9 Do you have brothers? Yes, I do
No, I don’t have
10 Are you happy to have brothers? Yes, mam
11 How about bear, what’s the
meaning of bear?
12 Repeat after me” bear”! Bear…..
13 Anton, can you spell bear? B…..e…a…..r
14 Have you watched a bear? Yes
15 Where did you see a bear? In the zoo, on television and in the
16 Is it a nice animal? Yes, but I am afraid
17 Why? They are wild
18 Where do bears usually life? In the jungle or in the pole
19 Yes, bears usually live in jungle?
Repeat after me, “jungle”!
20 What color is a bear? Brown or white
21 What do they eat? Fruit or salmon
22 Can you imagine what
It’s about the bear’s family
23 Do you want to watch this film? Yes, of course
After this question and answer session, the writer expected the
students to understand and master the material (narrative text) and she also
expected the students to have big enthusiasm to watch the movie, and they
had an imagination about the movie.
Modeling of Text
the students, the writer gave two examples of narrative texts. The writer also discussed the generic structure, vocabulary and also grammar of each text. The first example of narrative text that the writer gave to the students, entitled
Keong Mas , and for the second example the writer gave a
story entitled Loro Jonggrang
. The writer read the story three times and
discussed each paragraph. When discussing the story, the writer also wrote
clues based on the story on the board in order to make the student easily
understand the story, in this session the students also asked about the
vocabulary or anything related to the text.
In this activity, the writer and the students discussed the generic
structure of narrative text together based on the examples. The writer also
explained about the steps in writing so that the students knew the steps and
found it easy to produce a narrative text well based on the steps they had
4.2.3 Join Construction of Text
Join Construction of Text was conducted on Friday, January 10 Th this activity the students began their activity with their friends in groups or in pairs to finish or discuss the exercises that were given by the writer. There were four exercises. First, the writer gave a jumbled paragraph, based on the film, asked the students to work in groups of four and the students have to arrange the jumbled paragraph into a proper story. In the second exercise, the writer gave the students several words and asked the students to make a group consisting of three and they had to
make a story based on the words.
The third exercise, the writer gave an incomplete paragraph based on
the movie, and she asked them to complete the paragraph with the appropriate
The last exercise, the writer gave several words related to the movie
and asked them to write sentences based on the words.
The purpose of join construction of text was to make the students
able to work in groups or in pairs, so they could learn how to make a good
relation with other students and share their ideas.
Independent Construction of Text
Independent construction of text was the last activity in the this part,
in this activity the students had to apply their knowledge of narrative in
individual activity, the purpose of this activity was to measure how well the
students master the material and apply it. In this activity, the writer showed
, a film as an media in teaching writing narrative text.
There were two parts of independent construction of text, writing
draft II and writing revision II, here is the analysis of each part:
Writing Draft II
The activity of writing draft II was conducted on Friday, January 10 2007. There were 40 students joining in it. In this session the writer showed
the movie for several times, and asked the students to rewrite the story.
The result of the making of the draft II shows that 3 students who got
60, 12 students who got 64, 3 students who got 68, 4 students who got 72, 11
students who got 76, 5 students who got 80, and 2 students who got 84. The
detailed data can be seen in appendix 3
From the data above, the writer got data from the five language skill
and the total result of each score is 136 for fluency, 138 for grammar, 145 for
vocabulary, 150 for content and 142 for spelling. Based on the score data, the
writer would add that the poorest scores that the student got were on the
fluency (136 point).
And from that data above, the writer could conclude that the highest
scores that the students got was on the content (150 point) because they only
had to rewrite the story or in other words they have an idea (content), they
only had to rewrite the story.
The achievement of the writing draft II was 71, 1%. Based on the
result above, it could be concluded that there was an improvement of the
students’ achievement in writing draft II than in writing of the draft I or in
writing of revision I.
The writer concluded that the students enjoyed the class, they found
it easy to write because, she had to read the story before. The clues were
given, discussed the words and the most important thing was they had the
content or ideas to write. She concluded that the score of writing of the draft
II was higher than in the writing of the draft I or in writing of the revision I.
Writing Revision II
The activity of writing revision II was conducted on Saturday,
2007. There were students joining in this activity. The writer
gave back the students’ works of the last activity and asked them to revise the
mistakes they still made in the writing of the draft II once more. They might
use dictionary to check the wrong spelling, and they could share it to the
friends, the writer or their teacher. After finding the mistakes, they should
write the final copy to be the best.
In the result of making the final copy was that 1 student got 60, 5
students got 64, 9 students got 68, 6 students got 72, 11 students got 76, 5
students got 80, 3 students got 84 and 1 student got 88. The detailed data
could be seen in the appendix 4
From the data of writing of the revision II, the results are 139 for
fluency, 146 for grammar, 151 for vocabulary, 151 for content and 142 for
spelling. Based on the score data, the writer would add that the writer found
that the students got the highest scores on the content and vocabulary (151
point). Since they had revised their works in writing revision II, they had to
improve the content by their own sentences.
On the other hand, the students were poor in fluency (139 point),
because most of them found it difficult to get ideas.
The percentage of the students’ achievement in writing of the revision II was:
The total of the percentage
The average of the students result =
The number of the students
= 72, 9%
The achievement of the writing of the revision II was 72, 9%.
Based on the result of the writing revision II, it could be concluded that there
was an improvement of the students’ achievement in the writing of revision
II. Therefore it could be said that the students’ writing of narrative texts was
successful. It means using that movie in writing a narrative text can improve
the students’ ability.
The interview was conducted on Friday, January 12
were students joining in it. The writer did the interview to the students and
the purpose was to know the students’ experience in writing a narrative
text after watching the movie.
The examples of questions in the interview are:
(1) Do you find it difficult to write the text in the first part?
(2) Do you find it difficult the text in the second part?
(3) Do you find it difficult to choose the words to write in the first part?
(4) Do you find it difficult to choose the words to write in the first part?
(5) Was it easy to find ideas to write in the first part?
(6) Was it easy to find ideas to write in the second part?
(7) Which one do you feel more enjoyable, writing in the first part or in the
From the interview above the writer got the answers that:
(1) The students found it difficult to write in the first part because there was
no explanation of a narrative text and the students were confused about
the ideas or theme and for choosing the words.
(2) Most of the students said that it was easier to write a narrative text in the
second part than to write in the first part because in the second part the
writer had explained what the narrative text was, the generic structure
and the students felt it more difficult to choose the word in the first part,
because they only had a few numbers of words.
(3) The students found it easier to write in the second part because when the
writer gave examples of a narrative text on the board, she also gave clues
and wrote down difficult words. That related to the text, and she also
gave opportunity to the students to ask questions or difficult words
related to the text.
(4) The students found it difficult to find out ideas in the writing of the first
part, because it is not easy to express ideas in our brain into a written
(5) The students found it easier to write in the second part because they
already got the ideas of the movie and they only rewrote the movie into
(6) The students choose to write in the second cycle than in the first part,
because in the second part they found it easier to write.
4.4 The Use of
for Developing the Students’ Ability in Writing a
SMA N 10 Semarang, the writer used
a movie as a media in
teaching a narrative writing text in the second part, and based on the data
analysis of writing the draft I, writing a revision I, writing the draft II, writing
a revision II, and from interview with the students, the writer concluded that
using a movie can help the students to develop their ability in the writing of a
4.4.1 The Advantage of Movie in Writing Class
The students felt teaching writing of a narrative text by using a
movie in the second part had some advantages, they are:
a. In the second part, the writer had to explain what a narrative is,
the generic structure and lexiogrammatical, it could help the
student to understand and master a narrative text, especially in the
b. By using a movie, the students found it easier to get an idea
because they only rewrote the story in their word, so they didn’t
difficult to get the idea
c. The students had a lot of words based on the movie, so they only
arranged the word into a good story.
4.4.2 The Weakness of Movie in Writing Class
Besides several advantages of using
movie, there are
also the weaknesses of using the movie as a material in teaching learning
process of a narrative writing class. The weaknesses of using movie in a
narrative writing class are:
1) The students need more time to understand the movie, the writer must
repeat the movie until three times, it means that the students need
more time in writing class by using a movie.
2) Teaching by using a movie needs more facilities like television, VCD
player or disc drive computer, and unfortunately not all schools have
Based on the weaknesses of using movie above, the writer has some
suggestions to the teacher, on how to use a movie as a material in teaching
learning process especially in a narrative writing class, they are:
a. The teacher must prepare the right time for watching a movie, and
also the teacher must think about the duration, because the students need
longer times to watch and understand the movie.
b. The teacher must prepare the facilities for watching a movie, some
facilities are television sets, VCD player, and the class room. The
teacher must think that all of the students can watch the movie easily.
4.5 Score Analysis
In this project, the writer tried to use the movie entitled
, in teaching of a narrative writing class, and based the data of
observation, the data from writing of the draft I, writing revision I, writing
draft II and writing revision II, are:
Based on the data that the writer got from the total score of writing
of the draft I, writing revision I, writing draft II and writing revision II, the
total score had arisen from writing draft I (2572), writing revision I (2800),
writing draft II (2844) and writing revision II (2916), the writer concluded
that the score analysis can prove that the use of
in a narrative
writing class can develop the students’ ability in a narrative writing text,
especially in content and grammar. Finally, the writer concluded that using
could develop the student’s ability in writing a narrative text.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Based on the result of the analysis in the previous chapter, the writer
can conclude that:
There are some difficulties faced by the students in the narrative
writing class, they are: the students had not known about narrative text
before. The students had not known about the generic structure of a narrative
text. Most of the students could not apply grammar, especially simple past
tense. The students had less of vocabulary lists. The students could not apply
the plot of the movie into an interesting story. The students could not share
their ideas into a good writing.
The students’ progress during the teaching and learning activity by
teaching of a narrative text was good. The students’ achievement in writing
narrative of a text got improved. It was supported by the significance result of
the writing draft I that was lower (64, 3%) than the writing revision II (72,
Most of the students said that the activity in writing a narrative text by using Brother Bear
, a film could help them in learning writing.
The main factors affecting this success are the students’ interest in
the material (narrative text) given. They said that they like to write an
interesting story of a narrative text.
And finally this kind of activity is very necessary for the students
and they expected that the program to be regularly and continuously given.
Based on the conclusion above, the writer would like to offer some
suggestions, they are: the writer should explain what a narrative text first
before asking the students to produce a narrative text writing. The writer
should make sure that the students understand about grammar, especially
simple past tense. The writer should explore the students’ ideas. In teaching
writing of a narrative text by using movies in Senior High School, a teacher
of English should be able to attract students’ interest by giving interesting
motivation such as movies. The writer hopes that there will be many
researchers who are interested in studying some other methods in teaching a
narrative text writing effectively in the future.
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