Saturday, February 2, 2013



In 1983, there has been discussion among experts that only education in the United States on how to achieve good teaching and student abilities is higher. The discussion came to the surface due to report the National Commission on Excellent in Education which states that the ability of students in the field math, reading, and science in the U.S. is always measured with standard measuring devices (standardized tests). Presumably it bothers expert career and technical education. In addition, global economic factors, demands of an increasingly competitive marketplace, technology is growing, and changing world of work is often considered as factors that influence change in curriculum Career and Technical Education (CTE). Moreover, changes in demographic character of students, and growing knowledge about how to learn and teach whatever is causing it to be effective, leading to a career and technical education experts review the basic principles and methodology of engineering education and careers.

Has long Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (1978: 118) states that his The best method to teach reading and writing is not through formal teaching in the classroom, but through the game situation. In addition, Vygotsky expressed his belief that writing and speaking skills will flourish when students immersed in language usage when students are in play situations. Thoughts expressed by Vygotsky suggests that learning language skills will be easy and exciting when students brought into the world of play that has unwittingly encourage students to using the language he had learned naturally. When the play and language That there has been a real learning process. It was said, because at the time that children are faced with the use of whole language, relate directly to the needs of the child (relevant), it faces is a functional language, the child face to face with the real purpose of speaking activities, and with the use of natural language is the child control the usage of the language.

Why does the world play so meaningful for the language learning process of children? According Edelsky (1986), if in the event an authentic language (natural) are the events that have personal meaning, impression for himself, and meaning significant for users of the language itself, there will be a transaction between reader and text reading. When the transaction took place, a reader will constantly do problem solving, and at the same time he built and improve psycholinguistic strategies used in language learning. Through this transaction readable text that serves as an intermediary for the development of reading and writing language learners. Transactions between the text and the reader is based on opinion of the concept of text Halliday and Hasan (1976:293-295) who argue that the text is a unit of interaction semantics of a language. In the text there is unity meaning by the context, a common thread that describes the relationship intact between the facts with facts from which it originates environment.

Furthermore, Vygotsky saw language learning as a cultural activity of the complex (a complex cultural activity). It was said, because in process of learning the language a child is dipped into the crater of culture that takes into introduce children to the use of language, both verbal and written. In civilized society, children are familiar with an environment full of printouts. In the environment the children interact and play with the printed matter long before he entered the school. School is a new environment that the child should continue the role of the original environment. Moreover, schools should able to develop and expand the process of immersion of children into achieving literacy skills (immersion in literacy). Schools can make an environment that is in it as a richer literacy environment of the home environment of children before. This is where teachers can be a cold-handed mediator capable of making children feel at home in school, because school transformed the atmosphere into the crater of literacy immersion richer and more appeal to children. Language in school activities is conditioned as a world filled with the atmosphere of speaking, whether oral or written, the authentic (authentic speech or literary event).

A first question to be answered is whether learning outside class different from learning in the classroom? Perhaps one answer is different, because learning outside the classroom is to learn spontaneously, while learning in the classroom is learning an orderly, planned, and scientific. If that be our choice, then we belong to the class who think that science concepts can be learned in the classroom environment must be substantively different from what can be learned outside the classroom.
Goodman and Goodman (in Moll, 1993: 229) argues that learning in within and outside the classroom should not be different. There are factors that bind to both, so that learners with different conditions were the same. Factor mentioned is that learners taught through the experiences of Indo language, linguistic schemata are grown, and grown language skills. Schemata of experience and growth that then grow a personal understanding of the functions and rules of language, also grew well as an understanding of a child on the influence of the surrounding environment to the process of language learning.

The development of language skills in the child is formed by two forces. First, the inner strength that encouraged children to expresshim. The second strengthlies in the need tocommunicate with others who were then able to direct the growth of children's language to fit with language or language family in the neighborhood children. The establishment of these language skills can take place due to the "language of two-way transactions" (language myriad transactions) among children with other community members, both in schooland outside school. In the transaction, the language is growing in self-testing of children facing land, which is through the understandingor misunderstanding interacting parties, andalso from the responses given by participant transaction.Thus, the presence of parents, relatives, neighbors child's age, parenting helper huge role in encouraging the growth of language development in children through the transaction process. As for school, classroom teacher attendance, bench friends, classmates, seniors who play a role as asupervisor is the perpetrator transactions that encourages growth and development of language proficiency of students in the event the transaction. Children do not imitatelanguage of adults and children had never learned the rules of language out of context its use. Rules of language and social rules of their use was found by children individually in the context of language use, and in turn these rulesby the children adaptedto the socialnorms when he learns to use the languagebeing learned is.


The critically important thing to do is create a climate of learning
the students. Berns and Erickson (2001) asserts that the creation of an environment that encourage self-regulated learning is the realization of the basic requirements contextual learning. Climate is expected to learn the meaning of linking content lessons in the context of student life, as revealed by Berns and Erickson (2001), that the connecting content with context is an Important Part of Bringing meaning to the learning process.
in the classroom contextual language learning, teachers and students are transactions reciprocal. That is, traditional attitudes of teachers who stated that every teaching conducted by the teacher can fully control the learning is considered too simplify the learning problem. Contextual language learning requires changes in teacher attitudes, as emphasized by Vygotsky (Weltsch, 1985), that teachers must begin to realize the power of the transactions in the classroom. Therefore, teachers must plan well these transactions, including by building mutual respect between teachers and students. It was here, the incident was a reflection of learning a language event happen- on in the community: Teachers appreciate the efforts made by the students, guiding students to be able to assess itself and mutually respectful of each other, and with the creation of conditions that would be realized so that mutual respect. This is similar to the statement of Goodman and Goodman (in Moll, 1993: 235) which states that, "One teacher's key to success is building an atmosphere of mutual respect in Their cooperative learning classroom. these Become social communities where teachers value each learner, help the Learners to value themselves and each other, and win the respect of Their students. "
Changes in teacher attitudesas mentioned above can not be interpreted as reduce the authority and responsibilities of teachers. Desiredchange of attitude toward teachersis that teachers leadtheir students with the knowledge thathe was present at environment of students with more experience and knowledge that many of them, and he was present there because he respects the rights of their students. Therefore, when presentamong students, teacherswill try to understandhis students, to know whether students experiencing learningor not, and teachers ready to provide encouragement and facilities needed bystudents. Teacher to class with a contextual approach is a teacher who has worked withstudents, and create an atmosphere of creative learning(learning atmosphere).

Tobuild a learning climate in the language classroom, teachers can change the role in accordance withthe desired climate. There are 4 kinds of rolesthat can be run by teachers:
1.      Teachers as decision initiatives
A good teacher is one who is full of initiative. That way the teacher did not be passive. Among the things to be done by teachers is to create creative learning context. In addition, teachers must take the initiative in encouraging spirit of his students to learn to solve problems, identify, and discover their needs\
2.      Student teacher as observer
A good teacher should be skilled at observing students, both when child care was work or play. Teacher in class with this contextual approach to the development of skills students need to know. According to Vygotsky (Goodman and Goodman, 1993), teachers should try to know the Zone of Proximal Development of each student.
3.      Teachers as mediators
Redefinition of the term learningrequires a redefinition of the term of teaching. Optimal learning requires teaching skillsthat can support andfacilitate learning, without clamping, withoutgiving pressure, withoutdamaging, or blockingthe realization of learning. As a mediator, teacheris present in the midst of their students to encourageinteraction. As a mediator in reading and writinglessons, teachers should be in betweenstudent and text. Teachers can ask questions whose answers will guide students to the problems inherent in the text, givingprovocation, directs students' attention to things that are strange, invites students to more carefully observecertain parts of the text, helping studentswith the concept or scheme that can expand the horizons of student thinking.
4.      Teacher as a liberator
The difference between the teacher's role as mediator and teacher intervenes located the presence or absence of the freedom given by the teacher to student, or there Whether or not the pressure exerted by teachers against students. Intervention happen if the teacher controls the class with strict controls, giving guidance signs are very curb the learning process, so that treatment inhibit the growth of the teacher students' self confidence. Paolo Freire (1970) distinguish between the views education as a treat students like someone to save money in the "bank" and treat students as "liberators". If the student as a bank, a teacher who put the knowledge into the head students little by little, and students do not perform any power. By contrast, if the teacher as a liberator, he gave freedom to the students, so that students feel empowered.


Teaching and learning strategies are important in learning activities teaching in the classroom, because with these strategies teachers can create learning conditions that support the achievement of learning objectives. In addition, teaching and learning strategies chosen and used well by teachers can encourage students to actively pursue learning activities in class (Oxford, 1990: 1)
The selectionof teaching and learning strategiesshould be based on consideration ofplacing students as learning subjects that are not just passively accept what is delivered by the teacher. The teacher should place students asbeings who are naturally have the experience, knowledge, desires, and thoughts that can be utilized to learn, both individually and in groups. The strategy chosen byteachers is a strategy that can make students have a belief that himself capable of learning, which can exploit the potential of students to its fullest. Strategy teaching and learning such characteristicsis a cooperative strategyLearning.
CooperativeLearning is a kind of group learning that involves four to six students.Within this group, students work together other students under teacher supervision to resolve theissue provided by the teacher. In the discussiongroup, the students can express opinions and to a student who was appointed as group leader can take the initiative toconclude the discussion.
Shepardson(1997: 10-10) mentionsseveral characteristics of CooperativeLearning (cooperative learning) as follows:
1.      Teachers should always strive for interaction between students who are in a group (student-to-student interaction.) Cooperative learning strategy does not justify allowing a student teacher is too dominated the discussion. Teachers have an obligation to control the course of this group learning activities. Teachers must be can create conditions that can provide equal opportunity to each member of the group for opinions, submit a summary, maintained, or even provide a way out if the discussion is experiencing congestion.
2.      Teachers should create a positive interdependence among group members. That is, each group member must be pursued involved in this study. By way of giving a prearranged turn, teachers can make students force themselves played a part in the group. Teachers need to explain to group that each member should familiarize themselves with the good opinion of listening to other members, and must learn to accept others' opinions if what other people think it's better than the opinion itself. Therefore, students who are good at can help another friend to chip in mind.
3.      The ability of each member of the group counted fairly (individual accountability). In the cooperative learning groups of no participants expressed the opinion that allowed a voluntary basis. Under the deal that has been made previously, each group member will express an opinion. Therefore, the turn, a member of the group will receive a hostess duties of teachers, such as group leader, as the framers of the discussions, or as a transmitter of the discussion.
4.      The strategy emphasizes cooperative learning on achievement of common goals (group process skills). This strategy teaches students to exchange information, teach each other group members that have not been able to, and mutually menghar gai opinion of its members. The process of reaching an agreement this group practiced and grown during the discussion in progress.
5.      Members of this cooperative learning groups should not be too big, moving from 4 to 6 people. Group of this size provides the possibility for members to exchange ideas. In addition, teachers are also easy to oversee the process of learning that emphasizes the cooperation among the members of this group. With a group that is not too large, students who have a mental barrier, shy, or lack of initiative, may request assistance to other members, or gradually be encouraged to participate actively in the learning process group (Shepardson, 1997; Johnson et al., 1992).

Stages of Implementation of Cooperative Learning
Stagesthat can be taken on the use of cooperative learning strategies in the classroom witha contextual approach include: (1) division of the group, (2) division of duties, (3) the implementation of group discussion, (4) implementation of a class discussion.
Distribution Group
In accordance with one of the principles of cooperative learning, group division is based on the heterogeneity of students. Members of the group have different capabilities as far as possible with the intention that the group members are enabled to increase its ability to lower after interacting with members of the higher-capable. In other words, grouping students through cooperative learning has advanced so that students with higher ability have a positive effect on the lower. The effort is in accordance with the statement that was popularized by Johnson and Johnson (2001), which swim or sink together.
In addition to setting the group members based on the capability, the distribution of group members also noticed the large number of members in a group. Cooperative Study groups should try to get the number of members in a group are not too large, ranging between 4-5 people, so that learning is intensive interaction among members groups and teachers are easier to control. One who gets appointed as the coordinator responsibilities shared duties to members of his group, among other duties as registrar, messenger discussions, and answering questions for other groups. The tasks that have been given to each each member is only valid for one round, or completion of a task given by the teacher to the group.
To maintain that the students do not depend on other students, on the next round of duties as chairman, registrar, and conveys the results of the discussion can be exchanged to other members. The very need to get the attention of teachers at the turn of the task is that the rotation is intended to familiarize a student get the same heavy duty. More important than that, so that the valuable experience gained was not only brilliant student who usually dominate the opportunity within the group.
Division of Duties
At the beginning of a discussion group, the teacher re-emphasize the importance of
principles of cooperative learning, namely, that each group member must have the same feelings, that sink or swim together (Johnson and Johnson, 2001). Through this principle, is expected to grow awareness of each member of the group to share knowledge and experience they have, appreciate the opinions of others, and willing to reach out to help group members to the group successfully completed the task of each group. After dividing the class into groups, the next step is to assign tasks to these groups. The task is a task group that intended by the teacher prepared for discussion by the students in a group. In this discussion, teachers try to realize the nine steps of learning called by Nunan (1992: 17-24) as a negotiation like this continuum.
in this small group, teacher, first of all explore students' understanding of the goals they wish to achieve together. Return of learning the principles of cooperative learning are reminded to heed together. Furthermore, with their understanding of that, each group moves to start a discussion .. In the third step, the teacher let the exchange of ideas occurred. At this stage, students are allowed to discuss according to the catchment understanding and improve skills they possess respectively. The involvement of teachers allowed to keep only the first stage of this discussion group do not get stuck or jammed. If assistance had to be given, teachers should ensure that students remain entitled to decide for themselves what they think is right. Help teachers they consider to be one of the alternatives that they can develop further. If a group were active and successful, the teacher is only acting as an observer ( observer). If such a situation is created, then the cooperative learning has reached the fourth step, namely to keep the confidence of each member of the group continues to grow.
Each group must realize that learning could occur if each member of the group was convinced that he capable of. Cooperative learning will materialize if group members are better able to willing to donate their ability so that other group members "Do not drown". The fifth step is to help students identify ideas, opinion, throw mind they have done in the discussion. This needs to be done that the students used to think systematically and coherently. With teacher guidance, thoughts, throw an idea, or any comment that could be list of identification mind more can be well understood. However, it needs to be where the position of teachers in this stage: teachers only serves as an alternative provider, and the decision remains inside the group decision. This is in line with the sixth step and Seven of Nunan (1992: 22), that teachers should "Encourage learner choice and allow Learners to Generate Their own task ". Furthermore, the eighth step, students are given opportunity to formulate their conclusions. In this activity, students are encouraged to express his conclusions, and other students are encouraged to comment on the conclusions peer group. At the very least, members of the the other group gave approval to the conclusion of his friend. Finally, on the ninth step students are given the opportunity to apply as a researcher, ie to synchronize records of each member of the group for later put together to be a group report. This is in line with the opinions of Heath cited by Nunan (1994: 23) that "Students were asked ... to work together as a community of ethnographers, collecting, interpreting, and building a data bank of information ... They Had access to the knowledge I wanted, and the only way I Could get That knowledge was for Them to write to me. "The report is used as the basis for The next stage, which brought together a group with other groups which discusses the same poem with the same approach. Two groups of The same critic's poems brought together in a discussion between groups.
Group discussions with Cooperative Learning Strategies
To complete the task with a good group, classroom teachers with strategies cooperative learning to manage the distribution phase of this task well. For that, in the distribution of this task, according to Johnson and Johnson (2000), teachers should emphasize that the students tried to create a partnership with members of the group. A group members should try to stick to the guidelines that among each member of the group needs to have a positive interdependence (positive interdependence) which can be revealed in deeds such as sharing learning resources that support, provide support for the opinion expressed by members of the group, and celebrate with the group's success in completing the task group. In addition, the four basic elements of cooperative learning to another, ie respect for individual donations (individual accountability), tried to argue in the building of positive interactions (face-to-face promotive interaction), trying to interact socially, and always involved in a group must always be kept in process of task completion for each group, after the group in where members and their duties, teachers establish the working mechanism group, so that the responsibility of each member of the group are good. Each member of the group, at the beginning of exercise, has the task that has been established since the beginning (predetermined), namely a chairman, a becomes registrar, one or more members of a resource, and the remainder to convey the results of the discussion, or answering questions from other groups. The division of tasks thus not necessarily be realized perfectly. Therefore, individual accountability and group accountabilitycan be applied in stages, in accordance with conditions of each class.
The division of the group with members that are not too big aims to create interaction face to face so they know each other more closely. This can be done by changing the way students not to sit together with their habit everyday is sitting in a row and not face to face. In strategy cooperative learning, the inner relationship between students plays an important role for cooperation between group members can be realized. Therefore, each group is placed in a position to sit in a circle and close together, so they look more familiar. By way of sitting like this a lot of cooperative effort that can be achieved, for example, ask questions, check answers in the book, asking the meaning of a word or expression, and lending to each other information sources that are not owned by a member of the group. Even sometimes one  member of the group told his friends to ask something to the teacher mentor. Once the task is distributed to each group, the teacher recalls aspects of what should be resolved cooperatively.
In the conduct focus group discussions, students are given the freedom to choose place, in the classroom or outside the classroom. That is, so they are more relaxed, not awkward or afraid when I express opinions, and interpretations arise from thinking individuals in the group, or any of the results of discussions among group members, or the conclusion of an individual or a group after they were argue.
Implementation of group discussions attempted to walk naturally. The influence of teachers sought as little as possible. The presence of teachers in groups of no more to monitor the discussion. The teacher circulates from group to group to motivate, provide direction if students encounter problems can not be completed by all members of the group, answering questions does not concern the substance of the content of the task, and other technical matters concerning the implementation of group discussions in order to run optimally. In short, teachers could play a role as a facilitator. If teachers are forced to answer questions that lead to answers questions, teachers can advance students' knowledge of fishing, provide possible answers that can come out of the question, and ultimately, teachers let students make their own decisions.
In the process of observing, facilitating, and drive mechanisms for collaboration in the study group with cooperativelearning strategies, teachers strive to pay attention to five things thatare emphasized by Johnson et al. (1990: 71-72
1.      Each member of the group sought to remind each other to always pay attention to the questions to be answered together. Each group members must be sure that he understands what must be answered in the study group, and should also be aware that other members in group also have the same understanding.
2.      Inter-group cooperation among members should be extended in several ways, such as asking questions or interpretations of the meaning of a word or array in the poem, adding thoughts opinion on a group of friends that have been made previously, or any other method that appears in the discussion in progress.
3.      3. Teachers record all group efforts that lead to cooperation between group members. Positive efforts are then transmitted to other groups so that the level attained by a cooperative group can also be perceived by other groups. For example, a group trying to understand overall meaning of the poem by reading the poem turns into
task group. With silent reading, a poem can be understood by better, because by reading the right way, listeners can find not meaning contained in the poem; selection of colors sound, pressure, expression faces, and movements of poetry readers when reading a big impact to the understanding of poetry.
4.      The techniques work together within each group are considered good note
by the teacher. Furthermore, the techniques discussed at the first pause in the a meeting attended by two groups that analyze the poem with the same technique. In the next round, new techniques were tested and the observed effectiveness.
5.      The group that had finished answering the questions made by the teacher as leading questions assigned to write the results of their discussion. Later, members of the who had been appointed previously requested submit results of their discussion on the future the class. On this occasion, the level of cooperative students not only be on small group cooperation, but cooperation in a group that is greater.

Discussions Between the Same Group
In the discussion amongthe same group, two groups of problems critic The same mutually irreconcilable.Its purpose is to see the difference in results between the two groups in question. For example, Group 1 was presented to Group 2, Group 3 presented to the Group 4, Group 5 presented to the Group 6 and Group 7Group 8 is faced with.
Discussionsbetween the groups could account for any difference between the interpretation of results caused by (1) lack of accuracy of understanding the tasks / questions, (2) the difference perception of concepts,terms, terminology, and (3) differences / diversityof knowledge and experience possessed. However, through the guidance of teachers of allobstacles that couldaddressed and the interpretation of students still recognized as an original interpretation.
Ofdiscussion among this group to learn the new resultsobtained for experiencesharing with other groups. In meetings between groups of discuss this same issue, expandedlearning environment. Inner relationships between group members who have united to tryreunited with the other groups. This action certainly change the atmosphere of a mind that is calm. efforts required certain that intergroup competitiondoes not appear, because this meeting could lead to efforts to maintain theresults of group discussions. Teacherre explained the importance of workingtogether and learning together. She stressed the importancedictum Cooperative Learning Strategies, namelySwim or Sinktogether. Work with both so that taskscan be solved by both groups and with better results of the results achieved by one group.
The results of two group discussions were presented in the class discussion.
Meanwhile, the results of previous study also remained an important document for further discussion. Concrete outcome of discussions between groups is the increased ability, courage, and initiative participants who previously seemed passive.

Class Discussion
Based on discussions between groups the same, the students have gained understanding and experience of others from the previous understanding. The next step is a discussion class. Class discussion is intended to obtain another input of different groups. Thus, the acquisition of student learning increasingly rich, broad, and deep. Prior to class discussion, first set that the two groups that discuss the same issues rolled into one group. Thus, class discussion followed by the four groups. Despite being a member of the group, right to ask or refute remain on each individual. It is intended to foster individual responsibility and group all at once.
In summary, cooperative learning in the classroom has contextual characteristics the following. First, cooperative learning can increase the frequency of cooperation among group members. Second, cooperative learning can reduce the urge to compete, so that students do not mind sharing their knowledge and skills have. Therefore, the teacher gives credit to all efforts to work together, students also encouraged to involve members of the group in an effort to understand the task or conclusions of the results of their discussions. Third, learning atmosphere groups seem more fun because the burden is not borne difficulties by individual students. This study group, is not realized by the students, led each group member perform tasks for the benefit of the group. Fourth, cooperative learning helps improve the ability to work together in teams, practicing respect for the opinion of other group members, and encouraged to create a sense of confident members of the group: that he could donate his mind to interests of the group task completion. Fifth, cooperative learning can improve learning outcomes is more optimal because of the opinions and conclusions that came out was opinions and conclusions of the group. Sixth, cooperative learning provides a useful experience that doing things together and mutual respect from the other one will give better results.

In conclusion, the enlarged group meeting this gradually attitude led to study with as below.
1.      Cooperative learning can reduce distrust a person who feels less able.
2.      Encouragement from members of the group was able to cultivate a sense of confidence students, that he is able to contribute ideas that are useful for solving task group.
3.      For students who are relatively more capable, successful co-operative Learning Strategies reduce the tendency to compete. Another attitude that successfully grown in this group of students is the emergence of encouragement to help members other groups to understand the problems and complete tasks that become the responsibility of the group.
4.      This strategy can also be shown that the ability of each student who rarely occurs when learning in the classical style was gradually boldly displayed through the encouragement of the group.
5.      Cooperative learning strategies can also show that learning in groups small, cohesive and willing to work together to encourage students to dare to try an opinion, offer solutions to problems facing the group, and dare to take action that is "risky one", because individual persons are not revealed an error in this learning strategy. that there is the result of learning together. With attitudes like this, all members are expected have the same feeling: the success or failure are the property of the group.

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