IMPROVING STUDENT’S SPEAKING MASTERY USING
INFORMATION GAP AT THE SECOND YEAR OF SMP N 3
KEBAKRAMAT KARANGANYAR IN 2007/2008
A. Background of the Study
Communication is an essential need for human being. Language as the tool of communication has an important role to reveal an intention to someone else. People will be able to express their thought and feeling by using language. Language, communication and life can not be separated.
Language can be applied in many aspects, such as: education, society, politics, economics, and culture. One of the ways in communication is through speaking. It is very important to master speaking well. To master speaking ability, students must be trained to use English in communication orally. The frequency in using the language will determine the success in speaking ability. Without implementing the experience of learning the language in the real life, it is difficult for the students to master speaking ability. Hence, speaking competence can be accomplished by practicing it orally. In teaching English at the second grade of SMP N 3 Kebakkramat, the teacher teaches the students traditionally. They let the students only memorize the vocabulary, instead of using it. Then, the teacher asks the students to write down the words without asking the students to use it in the communication, yet some of the students do not know the function of this language exercise. This teacher-centered technique makes the student passive in learning English. The traditional method influences the teaching of speaking in which there are many problems appear. First, it relates to the condition of students who are lack of vocabulary which will make them unable to say words during speaking class. Second, the students get used to speak their Javanese language. Third, they rarely practice to use English to communicate. Fourth, most of the students are not confident to use English in speaking class. For
instance, when the teacher asks them to come forward to have a conversation with their friends, they refuse it. They are shy to perform English conversation in front of their friends. Finally, the student is they are not interested in the material given to them. The teacher is also having difficulties to teach in large class. The main problem is the way to manage it. During the teaching hours the teacher should make the students pay attention to the materials given to them. It needs hard work for getting the students attention. Lack of control also occurs when they teach in the large class. Therefore, it is difficult to implement the individual control for each student. Thus, the teacher cannot evaluate each student’s proficiency. From the problems above the writer tries to give a solution for the teacher to implement one of teaching methods. There is a method of teaching learning method which is interesting and it can improve student’s ability and liveliness, namely information gap method. This method is designed to create the students’ interest to learn with pleasant method. The core of information gap method is corporation between groups and shared. In an information gap activity, one person has certain information that must be shared with others in order to solve a problem, gather information or make decisions (Neu&Reeser). Information gap is a useful activity in which one person has information that the other lacks. Another advantage of information gap activities is that students are forced to negotiate meaning because they must make what they are saying comprehensible to others in
order to accomplish the task (Neu&Reeser, 1997: 128) These types of activities are extremely effective in the L2 classroom. They give every student opportunity to speak in the target language for an extended period of time and students naturally produce more speech than they would otherwise. In addition, speaking with peers is less intimidating than presenting in front of the entire class and being evaluated.
If our goal as second language educator is to have our learners speak with confidence in the target language, then we must make an effort to provide our students with a greater variety o opportunities to speak in the target language. Information gap activities are an effective means for accomplishing this goal.
B. Previous Study
The first previous research was done by Muljayanah (2004) entitled “The Implementation of communicative language teaching speaking AT LIA SURAKARTA: Ethnography. In her research, she describes the implementation of communicative language teaching and the strength and the weakness of teaching speaking using communicative language teaching. The second previous research was done by Dwi Henrie W. A (2002) entitled “Improving Students’ Pronunciation in Speaking Class through Repetition Technique: An Action Research at the Fifth Year Students of SDN PREMULUNG. In his research, she describes the implementation of
Repetition Technique to improve the students’ pronunciation speaking ability. The previous research describes the implementation of improving students’ speaking mastery using information gap. The present research also deals with the new technique applied in English speaking at SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR. So, it can be said that this research
is quite different from the previous studies above.
C. Limitation of the Study
To make the problem easy to be discussed deeply, the writer focuses the problem as follows.
1. The subject of researcher in this research is the second grade students of SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR.
2. The implementation of information gap technique to improve the students’ speaking mastery.
D. Problem Statement
The problems that will be studied in this research are stated as follows.
1. How is the implementation of Information Gap Technique to improve
the students’ speaking mastery?
2. Does information gap technique improve the students’ speaking mastery?
3. What are the students’ response on the implementation of information gap technique?
E. Objective of the Study
This research is aimed at
1. describing the implementation of information gap to improve the students’ speaking mastery.
2. describing the improvement of the students’ speaking mastery.
3. describing the students’ response on the implementation of information gap technique.
F. Benefit the Study
1. Theoretical Benefit
a. The result of the research can be useful for students on pronunciation, memorize and vocabulary in implementation of information gap.
b. The result of the research can be useful for English teacher in implementation of information gap to improve the speaking mastery.
c. The result of the research is used as the reference for those who want to conduct a research of students’ speaking mastery using information gap.
2. Practical Benefit
a. The result will help the teacher increasing the students’ speaking mastery.
b. The result will help the students in increasing their speaking mastery.
c. The result will help the students to increasing their speaking ability in interaction with each other.
d. The result will give the information to the teacher in the way in carrying out the information gap on teaching speaking to increase the students’ speaking mastery.
G. Research Paper Organization
The research paper comprises five chapters; chapter 1 is introduction which covers background of the study, previous study, problem statement, objective of the study, benefit of the study, and research paper organization. Chapter II is underlying theories that consist of the notion of teaching speaking and the notion of information gap method. Chapter III is research method that consists of type of research, object of the study, subject of the study, research location, research procedure, and method of collecting data and technique for analyzing data. Chapter IV is related to the process of the implementation of teaching speaking using information gap method, the result of the implementation of teaching speaking using information gap method in teaching learning process and the student’s opinion on the implementation of information gap technique.
Chapters V is conclusion and suggestion.
In this chapter, the researcher would like elaborate the theory related to the research which is done by the researcher. It is crucial for the researcher and the readers to recognize the definition or the meaning of title of this research in order to make easier for the researcher in analyzing and
understanding the problem deeply. Follows are the theories that will be discussed in this research globally: teaching speaking and information gap.
A. Teaching Speaking
1. Notion of Speaking
Speaking skill should be taught and practiced in the language classroom. Because the language course truly enables the students to communicate in English, so speaking skill needs the special treatment. In the reality, in our daily life most of us speak more than we write; yet many English teachers still spend the majority of class time on reading and writing practice almost ignoring speaking and listening skills. Based on the statement above, there should be a good balance to practice in classroom. According to Hornby (1995:826) speaking is making use of wordsm in an ordinary voice, offering words, knowing and being able to use a language expressing one-self in words, and making speech. Therefore the writer infers that speaking uses the word and produces the sound to express ourselves either ideas, feeling, thought and needs orally in an ordinary voice. Furthermore, success in communication is often dependent as much on the listener as on the speaker.
There are three components to make fluent in producing speech, namely vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. According to Walter (1973:11) speaking is one way of learning
about one self. In speaking, someone must face problems that have history and relatively to other people, groups, and the predictions we have formed for living together. While Tarigan (1990:3) states speaking that is gotten by the children preceded by listening skill. After getting the language input the students are able to master speaking skill. So that, speaking is the way to
express our idea and feeling to one another.
2. Notion of Teaching Speaking
Teaching speaking is sometimes considered as a simple process of commercial language school around the world, which hires people with no training to teach conversation. Although speaking is totally natural, speaking in a language other than our own is anything but simple (Nunan, 2003:48). Based on the statement above that teaching conversation to the students in foreign language is simple. Because learning spoken language sometimes ignores the grammar rule and the other hand the students need to form good habit in English speaking practice.
Furthermore, the writer will elaborate the notion of teaching according to oxford advanced learner’s dictionary teaching which means giving the instruction to someone else: give someone else ( knowledge, skill, etc )
While Haskew and Mc Lendon in Sutopo, (2000:9) states as follows:
a. Teaching is action to increase the odds that potential learners will learn.
b. Teaching is action to point learning toward desired to accomplishment by learners.
c. Teaching is action to make knowledge create sense.
d. Teaching is to present learners a live opportunity to learn.
e. Teaching is action to enhance the persons who are learning.
Moreover, teaching speaking skill emphasizes on the activities to make the students active and creative. West (1968) in Fauziati,(2002:145) states that to increase students’ speaking mastery the teacher must concern with the student –to –student –interaction. The great part of time in the process of learning speaking is dominated by students. Afterwards, it’s dominated by the instructor. This maximizes the students’ competence in speaking. The students learn what they are going to say with other in front of the class and try to develop their creativity orally. Therefore, the writer tries to give definition of teaching speaking is the instruction of the teacher/tutor to the students to encourage them in using the language orally to express their ideas, feeling and opinion to someone else and also encourage the potential of the learners to develop their speaking skill naturally.
3. Element of Speaking
In speaking, it is very important for student to acquire the ability to express their ideas and opinions. Consequently, this competency should be mastered by the learners of language. Following are the elements of speaking ability according to (Harmer, 2001:269-271), a. language features such as the connected speech, expressive devices, lexis and grammar, and
negotiation language. Connected speech is the modifying in sounds production or utterances such as assimilation, omission, addition, weakened (through contraction and stress patterning). An expressive device is the alteration of the speed, volume, and stress of utterances to show the feeling. The use of this device contributes the ability to convey meaning. Then lexis and grammar is necessary for the teacher to give of supply of certain words and language function, such as agreeing or disagreeing, surprise, and so forth. Those make students can produce at various stages of an interaction.
Lastly, negotiation language is the benefits to clarify and to show the structure what we are saying. Therefore, those elements are completely significant a speaking ability.
Furthermore, Harmer (2001: 104) states that the other element of the speaking is mental/social processing except the language skill for the speaker, but the rapid processing skill is also necessary, such as language processing, interaction, and information processing. The language
processing is the effective speaker to convey their intention to someone else and they process the words or retrieval of words or phrases from memory to communicate with people. It helps the students to develop habits of rapid language processing English. Then, interaction is the student interacting with the other and they understand each other. Lastly, information processing is related to the perception of some else concerning the response to other feeling in using the language. Consequently, the mental has important role to succeed the communication particularly in speaking ability.
4. Principles of Teaching Speaking
Principles of teaching speaking are as follows (Harmer, 2001: 102)
a. Help students overcome their initial reluctance to speak. Be encouraging; provide opportunity; start from something simple;
b. Ask students to talk about what they want to talk about.
c. Ask students to talk about what they are able to talk about.
d. Provide appropriate feedback.
e. Combine speaking with listening and reading.
f. Incorporate the teaching of speech acts in teaching speaking.
5. Method of Teaching Speaking
The method of teaching speaking as suggested by Harmer (1998:95) is Engage Activate-Study. Engage means that the teacher gives warming to the students. For instance: the topic of the discussion is about ‘daily activity,’ so, the teacher tells or gives stimuli to the students concerning with the topic. Then, activate the teacher give an opportunity to the students to express their ideas and opinions. Afterwards, study means that it concerns with the material of the discussion. Therefore, the students can get the learning experience.
The other method of teaching speaking skill is through information gap activities that are suggested by Raptou (2001: 211). Information gap is useful activity in which one person has information that the other lacks. They must use the target language to share that information.
For instance, one student has the directions to a party and must give them to a classmate. One type of speaking activity involves the so-called ‘information gap’-where two speakers have different parts of information making up a whole. Because they have different information, there is a ‘gap’ between them.
6. Classroom Speaking Activities
The activities of speaking class are as follows (Harmer, 2001:271-274).
a. Acting from a script.
In this section the teacher asks the students to perform the play based on the dialogue in the script. Thus, the teacher as the director and the students perform the dialogue.
b. Communication Games
A game is one of activities that can help students relaxed in learning the language. This technique is particularly suitable for the children in mastering the language. It is designed to provoke communication between students, so that the students has to talk to a partner in order to solve a puzzle, draw a picture, puts the things in right order, and differences between picture.
The problem in conducting the discussion is the students’ reluctant to give opinion in front of their friends. Particularly when the students are not mastering the topic of discussion. Therefore to encourage the students is to provide activities which force the students in expressing the ideas
through the topic which is familiar with student’s world. For instance, are: their daily activity, the situation of their class, and describing.
d. Problem solving
The material is used in this technique giving the students to work in pairs or groups. They share their problem, opinion and feeling. In this case the teacher as the bridge to communicate among the participants. Then, the students give a question and answer each other. This communication will help the students practicing and expressing their ideas in spoken language.
e. Role Play
A popular way of the aspect of speaking activities is to use simulations and role plays. This is where students pretend that they are in a different situation, either as themselves or playing the role of someone is quite different. We could ask them to be guest at some parties and go there
as different characters. They could, as themselves, pretend to be at an airport trying to check luggage, or either as themselves or another character take part in a television program. In all these cases the students are using language in order to participate in the activity rather than other
way round! Some students find it very comfortable to use language in a simulated environment, playing the role of someone else –it allows them to experiment freely to be another people.
7. Problem in Speaking Skill
The learners have their own difficulties in learning the language. Particularly in improving speaking skill is not easy for the students. The Following are the problems of speaking skill (Munjayanah ,2004:17):
: unlike reading, writing or listening activities, speaking requires some degree of real-time exposure to an audience. Learners are often inhibited about trying to say thing in foreign language in the classroom: worried about mistakes or simply shy of the attention that their speech attract.
b. Nothing to say
. Even they are not inhibited, you often hear learners complain that they cannot think of anything to say: they have no motive to express themselves beyond the guilty feeling that they should be speaking.
c. Low or uneven participation
. Only one participant can talk at a time if he or she is to be heard; and in large group this means the each one will have only very little talking time. This problem is compounded of some learners to dominate, while other speaks very little or not at all.
d. Mother tongue use
. It is easier for the student to use their mother tongue in their class because it looks naturally. Therefore, most of the students are not disciplined in using the target language in the learning
B. Information Gap
Information gap is a useful activity in which one person has information that the other lacks. They must use the target language to share that information. For instance, one student has the directions to a party and must give them to a classmate. I teach core French at the secondary level and students complain that when they go to a French-speaking part of the world, they cannot say what they wish to say in French, even thought they have had years of French
education. We, therefore, need to actively engage students in speaking activities that are enjoyable and that are based on a more communicative approach. One solution is using an information gap activity that is suggested by Violet Raptou (2001: 213) One of the challenges many second language-teachers face is motivating their students to speak in the target language, confident students always participate and students who are less confident are reluctant to speak.
Even when students speak in the target language, they are usually answering a question and this approach greatly limits students output. Oral presentations provide opportunities for students to speak in the target language for an extended period of time and these activities are useful, but
they should not be the only opportunities students have to speak at length. Because students prepare for this presentation by writing a script and then rehearsing it, they have difficulty speaking in the target language spontaneously because they are given little opportunity to do so. When students choose learn a language, they are interested in learning to speak that language as fluently as possible. One solution is using information gap activities. In information gap activity, one person has certain information that must be shared with others in order to solve a problem, gather information or make decisions (Neu & Reeser, 1997). These types of activities are
extremely effective in the L2 classroom. They give every student to opportunity to speak in the target language for an extended period of time and students naturally produce more speech than they would otherwise. In addition, speaking with peers is less intimidating than presenting in front of the entire class and being evaluated. Another advantage of information gap
activities is that students are forced to negotiate meaning because they must make what they are saying comprehensible to others in order to accomplish the task (Neu & Reeeser, 1997: 156).
C. Conceptual Framework
Information gap is useful activity in which one person has information that the other lacks. They must use the target language to share that information. For instance, one student has the directions to a party and must give them to a classmate. With information gap give each student has an opportunity to speak in the target language for an extended period of time and students naturally produce more speech than they would otherwise and in this activity the students must make what they are saying comprehensible to others. As a result, such a technique can improve students’ speaking mastery.
D. Action Hypothesis
Dealing with the underlying theories, the action hypothesis of this research is: By giving information gap technique, the students’ speaking mastery can be improved or better”.
E. Performance Indicator
The writer needs to establish some criteria in order to know whether the research is effective or event not. The writer considers the research to be effec tive if the subjects of the study are able to increase students’ achievement after being taught through information gap technique. Here, the
subject is categorized as successful, if the students’ scores belong adequate level. While an adequate level is titled to subject that is not only able to improve but also to convey, at least the standard of performance which is 2.9. It means that teaching speaking using information gap is
significant. It is line with the score as explained below:
A. Type of the Study
In this research, the writer uses classroom a ction research (CAR). Mc Niff (1992) in Arikunto (2006:102) states that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in a social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own social or educational practices as well as their understanding of these practices and the situations in which these practices are carried out. It consists of planning, acting/implementing, observing, and reflecting. Furthermore, Kasbolah (2001:15-17) states that there are four characteristics of action research; firstly, the action research is carried out by practitioners rather than outside rese archer. In this research, the classroom action research was carried out by the researcher and English teacher as the collaborator. Secondly, action research is the systematic study attempting to overcome real problems. In this research the classroom
action research (CAR) was the attempts to overcome students’ problem in speaking mastery. Thirdly, the action research is intended to change thing to be better than before. In this research, the class action research (CAR) was intended to change the students’ ability in speaking mastery to be better than before. Fourthly, action research is a kind of collaborative research, it means that the research take participants in the form of a team consisting of insider and outsiders. Then insiders were some teachers who want to do action research and outsiders were the researchers in their field. In this research, the classroom action research (CAR) was done by the writer and the English teacher.
B. Action Procedures
In this Classroom Action Research (CAR), the writer used the CAR principle to collect the data. The research consist of three cycles with each cycle consist of four elements. The writer describes the cycles through the scheme of action research steps and each of the phases can be explained briefly as follows:
The cycle of Classroom Action Research (Hopkins, 1993: 52)
In this phase, the writer makes the lesson plan and then chooses teaching aids to imply the information gap method. In this phase, the writer use dialogue, short paragraph, describe and draw material.
The teacher puts the class into four groups, calling them A, B, C, D. To each group he gives one of the pictures. The students in the groups have to memorize everything they can about the
pictures-which’s in them, what’s happening etc. They can talk about the details in their groups.
The teacher now takes the pictures and asks for one student from each group (A, B, C, and D) to form a new four person group. He tells them that they have seen different picture but that the
pictures taken together. The task is for the students to work out what the story is. The only way they can do this is by describing their pictures to each other and speculating on how they are
connected. The final stories may be different. The groups tell the whole class what their version is, and the teacher can finally re- show the pictures.
In this phase, the writer observs the students response, participation and everything which is found during the teaching and learning process.
In speaking learning process, most of the student are interested in information gap method. Sometimes, from one group to other group do a mistake, like: misunderstanding, unability to memorize the story.
After collecting the data, the writer will evaluate the teaching-learning process. Then, the writer will reflect herself by seeing the result of the observation, whether the teaching learning process of speaking using information gap method is good to imply in teaching learning process at SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR in 2007/2008 Academic Year or not. If the first
plan is unsuccessful, the writer should make the next plan (re- planning) to get a good result. During the process of the action research in the first class of SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR, the writer uses the diary and document as the instrument for gathering the data. Diaries contain personal accounts of the observation on feeling, reaction, interpretations, reflections, explanations and documents are used to provide information, which is relevant to the problem under investigation. The documents used by the writer are lesson plan and the sample of children’s work. Mc Cormick James (1983) in (Tilston, 2002:52) state that the successful document used is still photography in the collection on information, particularly when evidence is being collected to evaluate lessons. So, the writer includes the photography as the document too. Furthermore, Kasbolah (2001:15-17) states that there are four characteristics of action research; firstly, the action research is carried out by practitioners rather than outside researcher. In this research, the classroom action research was carried out by the researcher and English
teacher as the collaborator. Secondly, action research is the systematic study attempting to overcome real problems. In this research the classroom action research (CAR) was the attempts to overcome students’ problem in speaking mastery. Thirdly, the action research is intended to change thing to be better than before. In this research, the class action research (CAR)\ was intended to change the students’ ability in speaking mastery to be better than before. Fourthly, action research is a kind of collaborative research, it means that the research take participants in the form of a team consisting of insider and outsiders. Then insiders were some teachers who
want to do action research and outsiders were the researchers in their field. In this research, the classroom action research (CAR) was done by the mwriter and the English teacher.
C. Research Location
This research takes place at SMP N 3 KEBAKRAMAT KARANGANYAR. The writer chooses this place to do an action research because the writer sees it necessary to develop the way in teaching particularly to develop the students’ speaking mastery in junior high school. In teaching English at the second grade of SMP N 3 Kebakkramat Karanganyar, teacher teaches the students traditionally. They let the students only memorize the vocabulary, instead of using it and they don’t know about information gap. So, the researcher want to do the research in this school.
D. Object of the Study
The object of the study is teaching speaking learning-process using information gap method to the second grade of SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR in 2007/2008 Academic Year.
E. Subject of the Study
The subject of the study is to the second grade students of SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR in 2007/2008 Academic Year. There are 40 students in class VIII a.
F. Method of Collecting Data
The method is a means that is used to solve problems. There are some methods of collecting data. They are observation, interview and test. In this case the data are taken from the source by employing observation and test.
The writer does the observation directly toward teaching speaking learning-process in SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR 2008/2009 Academic Year. In this research, the writer acts as an active observer. The writer interacts with the students as well as the teacher. In speaking lesson, the writer observes their speaking skill, such as; their pronunciation, vocabulary, memorizes and their brave in speaking lesson.
According to Sudjana (1987:16) a test means some question to students to be answered. The test is used to compare the students’ speaking achievements before conducting the research (post-test) and after conducting the research (pre-test). The form of the test can be grouped into three forms, namely: oral, written, and behavior form. In this research, the writer conducts an oral test. The students make story depend on picture, what they do or everything in the picture. Then,
they memorize the story and tell to their friend in front of class or other group.
One of the ways to get deep and more information in the classroom the writer will interview the English teacher. In here, the researcher takes 10 samples of 40 students. What’s problem of speaking, about speaking lesson during before and after using information gap method in speaking lesson.
G. Data and Data Source
The data of this research are the procedure and the result of teaching speaking using information gap. The result is in the form of the comparison between pretest and post-test score. The sources of data in this study are:
It is the teaching speaking using information gap in the second grade of SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR.
The informant is the English teacher and students in SMP N 3 Kebakkramat Karanganyar.
The researcher observes and teaches in the classroom of SMP N 3 Kebakkramat Karanganyar.
H. Technique for Analyzing Data
The researcher conducts the action research of teaching speaking using information gap technique at the second grade of SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR. What follows are steps in analyzing the data based on Miles and Huberman (1984: 170).
a. Reducting the data
This is the first component in analyzing the data that contains selection process, focusing, and summarizing data from field notes. In this step, the researchers’ selects, limits, and summarize the data from the implementation of teaching speaking using information gap technique.
b. Displaying the data
The second step of analyzing the data is describing the data in narrative which the research conclusion will be possible to be done. This step is describing the result of the research which is described in systematic and logic sentence, therefore the result is understandable the form of displaying is not always in the sentences, but can displayed in table form which supports the narrative data.
c. Drawing Conclusion
The last step is the researcher makes conclusion of the research. Then the researcher also verifies the conclusion the technique is by discussing the research conclusion with the collaborator of the research. This step is very important to be done in order to get good research conclusion.
Jeremy Harmer. 2001. The practice of English Language Teaching . England. Pearson education limited Thomas Gordon. 1997. Teacher Effectiveness Training . Jakarta: Gramedia. Christina Tilston. 1998. Observing Teaching and Learning . London: David Fulton Publishers Bruce Joyce. 1996. Model of Teaching . New Jersey: Prentice Hall. River Wilga. 1968. Teaching Foreign Language Skill . Chicago Press. John W. Best. 1982. Research in Education . New Delhi: Prentice Hall. Freeman & Larsen Diana. 1986. Technique and principle in language
. London: Oxford University Press. Lado Rober. 1995. Language teaching a scientific approach
. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Ngatiyah, Titik.2005. Improving speaking competence through problem solving at second year student of SMP N 1 Wanadadi, Banjarnegara . Surakarta: UMS. Fauziati, Endang. 2002. Teaching English as foreign language (TEFL). Surakarta: Muhamma diyah University Press. Henri, Dwi. 2006. Improving Students’ Pronunciation in Speaking Class Through Repetition Technique: An Action Research at the Fifth Year Students of SDN Premulung . Surakarta: UMS. Munjayanah, Anik. 2004. The Implementation of Communicative Language Teaching Speaking at LIA SURAKARTA: An Ethnography . Surakarta: UMS.