Sunday, January 27, 2013

Contoh Kumpulan Makalah dan Artikel Bahasa Inggris Lengkap


1. Regional Arts
Art (artwork) has been widely defined people. Understanding the art that many of us understand is "a tangible result of the action, which is an expression of a dream (desire, will) into a physical form that can be captured by the senses" (Rustopo, 2001: 98). Meanwhile, local art is a term that used to describe art forms that grow and thrive in areas that are supported by local communities.
The term is also used to distinguish it from other forms of art that are considered "national art" and art forms ascribed cultural region "foreign" (Rustopo, 2001: 101-102). Because of growing and developing in certain areas and supported by the local community, the regional art is usually a traditional art which one of them is also being used as an identity or a region . tradition art can be classified into two popular art and art palace.
Populist art has characteristics:
a. Growing up as part of the traditional culture of the people in each region,
b. Has the characteristics of a traditional farming community,
c. Progress slow,
d. Is part of a 'cosmos' life is divided into boxing round without specialization,
e. The artwork is not the result of individual creativity, is in accordance with the nature of the collectivity anomim community supporters,
f. Forms of functional art in the sense of theme, form and appearance revealed relating to the interests of farmers,
g. Not smooth and uncomplicated,
h. Such mastery of form not through special exercises,
i. Simple equipment and limited,
j. In the presentation as if there is no distance between performer and audience.
          In the development, orientation centers 'cosmic' ruler shifted to the king, and artistic traditions that developed into an art-oriented to the new center, the palace. Came the palace of art which is a refinement of the popular arts. Palace of art has the opposite characteristics to the popular arts.
The characteristics of the palace of art are:
a. Supported by a community court,
b. Finely cultivated form and content,
c. Mastery takes practice against a determined and old, and
d. Equipment is complex.
In the development, the palace of art is also growing outside the walls of the palace, to the middle of the town and villages although not heavy and evenly (Kayam, 1981: 59-60; Humardani via Rustopo, 2001: 106-108).

As an example of the art of popular traditions in Central Java is Tayub, Rodat, Angguk, Dolalak, Emprak, Barongan, Sintren, and so on. Meanwhile, the palace of traditional art form of dance, musical, puppetry, art, and literature. Just as an example of the art of traditional dance palace is bedhaya, srimpi, and wayang wong.
2. Regional Culture
Culture (often called culture) is the entire system of ideas, actions, and the works of man in order to become a society that belongs to human beings by learning (Koentjaraningrat, 1984: 9, and 1986: 180). J.J. Honigmann in The World of Man (1959) distinguishes the three cultural phenomenon, namely ideas, activities, and artifacts. Accordingly Koentjaraningrat suggests that cultures can be classified in three forms. First, a form of culture as a complex of ideas, ideas, values, norms, and rules. The first manifestation is a manifestation of the cultural ideal of abstract (can not be touched, held, or photographed), are in the minds of the community where the local culture alive. Culture is also called the order ideal behavior which controls, control, and give direction to the actions, behavior, and human action in society. Anthropologists and sociologists call ideal manifestation of this culture with the cultural system (cultural system) which in the Indonesian language known as adat or customary (in the plural). Second, a form of culture as a complex pattern of activity and actions of human beings in society. Form of culture is called the social system (social system). The form of this culture can be observed, photographed, and documented by the social system there are human activities that interact with one another. Social system is a manifestation of culture that is concrete in the form of behavior and language. Third, as a form of cultural objects of human handiwork; is the most concrete and the form of objects or things that can be seen, touched, and photographed. Being a third culture is called physical culture (material culture).
          The third form of culture in the reality of people's lives would not be separated from one another. Ideal culture organize and give direction to the actions and work of man. The ideas and actions produce objects that are physical culture. Instead of physical culture established specific environment that can influence the actions and ways of thinking (Koentjaraningrat, 1984: 5-6, and 1986: 186-188).

 Meanwhile, the local culture is a term typically used to distinguish a culture of national culture (Indonesia) and global culture. Culture is the culture of the area owned by the people who occupy a particular locality or region is different from the culture of which is owned by the people who are in other places. In Indonesia the term is also frequently culture of the region akin to the local culture or ethnic culture / sub etnik. each nation, ethnic, sub-ethnic and has a culture that includes seven elements: language, knowledge systems, social organization, systems life equipment and technology, the system livelihood systems, religion, and the arts (Koentjaraningrat, 1986: 203-204). However, the distinctive cultural traits can only be manifested in finite elements, especially through language, art, and ceremonies. The elements that are otherwise difficult to highlight cultural traits typical of a nation or tribe (Koentjaraningrat, 1984: 109).

3. Significance of the Regional Arts and Culture Preservation
 Arts and culture should be preserved because it is still useful and relevant to life. Usefulness and relevance of the arts and culture of the area lies in the values ​​contained therein. In every element of culture that has been mentioned along with  certainly contains values ​​that are useful to the community owner. Usefulness was contained for example in the following.
a. The forms of artistic expression that thrive in a culture perceived aesthetic while providing a sense of satisfaction.
b. Cultural values ​​and norms of a particular culture is still considered as a guiding behaviors that define civilization, such as goodness, decency, and elegance.
c. Technology and its techniques in practice is considered an advantage that can combine and with a technology known in other cultures.
d. A series of ritual acts symbolic meaning is still considered to have an acceptable despite the belief system has changed.
e. Traditional games and a variety of other expressions of folklore is still considered to have a healthy creativity (Sedyawati, 2008: 280).
Although culture change and development, but the identity of a culture can be sustainable; sustainable means of dynamic, namely the characteristics of the overall cognizing retained, although the forms of expression in it is subject to change (Sedyawati, 2008: 290). Therefore, conservation is done even also a dynamic preservation. Related to arts and culture, the dynamic conservation efforts that can be taken include:
a. Documentation carefully as possible by using the appropriate media; outcome of this documentation can then be used as a reference source on condition kept in a safe place and registered systematically in order penelusurannya easy.
b. The discussion in the context of awareness, especially on cultural values, norms, and aesthetic.
c. Procurement performance event that allows people to experience and appreciate (Sedyawati, 2008: 280).
With dynamic conservation activities, it is hoped will form a cultural awareness that accompany any human being Indonesia (Kartodirdjo, 1994a and 1994b).
          Now the question is how the position and role of students and a dynamic cultural institution in the preservation of art and culture of the area. Here are delivered in ways to optimize student and cultural institutions in the preservation of art and culture.
4. Optimizing the Role of Students and the Institute for Preservation of Art and Culture in the Cultural District

1. Optimizing the Role of Students
Students have the position and role in the preservation of art and culture. It is based on the assumption that the students are children of the nation who succeeded the sustainability of society, the nation and state of Indonesia. As a young intellectual who would become the leaders of the nation, they must reside on a cultural awareness that sustainability of the Indonesian nation state can be maintained. The establishment of cultural awareness among other students do with optimization of their role in the preservation of art and culture.
Optimizing the student's role in the preservation of art and culture can be done through two ways, namely  and extracurricular. Line  done by making the arts and culture as a substance subject, while extra lines can be done through the use of student activity units (SMEs) arts and student participation in the activities of art and culture organized by the various parties to the preservation of arts and culture.

a. Line Intrakurikuler
To optimize the student's role in the preservation of art and culture is necessary to students' understanding of the art and culture of the area. Without a good understanding of it, it is impossible that a student can perform the role well. Increasing students' understanding of the art and culture of the area can be done through the; meaning of art and culture be used as a substance or learning material in one course or serve as subjects.
 The first possibility can be made through the course of Social and Cultural Association (ISBD) for students of exact sciences courses, and Cultural Studies and Cultural Anthropology Association for students of social science courses. In the two courses would be some topics that could be used to improve students' understanding of art and culture is about people and culture, people and civilization, and humans, science technology, and art.
The second possibility seems to have been accommodated in the curriculum-study program that includes courses in humanities clumps as courses in the Faculty of Arts or the Faculty of Humanities. Some courses are specifically used to improve understanding of the art and culture of the area is the Community and the Arts of Indonesia, Indonesian People and Culture, and Society and Culture Coast. Through courses-courses, students may be given an assignment to view, understand, appreciate, document, and discuss the art and culture of the area. With activities such students' understanding of art and culture region will increase, which also have preservation.
Other  pathways that can be used to enhance student understanding and even optimize the role in the preservation of art and culture is Field Work (CCN). Students who have obtained sufficient understanding of the art and culture of the area to take part directly in the preservation and development of arts and culture.
b. Line Extracurricular
Formation and utilization of the Student Activity Unit (SMEs) Art of Java (Other Areas) is another step that can be taken to optimize the role of students in the preservation of art and culture. In this connection, college leaders need to encourage the establishment of the Regional Arts SMEs. Student organization that is a strategic vehicle for such efforts, because they are students really interested and talented in the arts tradition. Regular exercises as a form of local arts SME activities (eg Java), which in turn will lead to staging or performance is a real form of art and culture preservation. Forums student arts festival sort of National Student Art Week (Peksiminas) is another vehicle for optimizing the role of students in the preservation of art and culture.

2. Optimizing the Role of the Cultural
Cultural institutions both in the form of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), studio, or other elements that the community is able to participate in the preservation of art and culture. So far cultural institutions seen as elements of society that are relatively equal attention and concern for the existence and survival of the arts and culture of the area.
         Optimizing the role of cultural institutions need government support. The establishment of the arts council is one of the efforts to be made to optimize the role of cultural institutions. Arts council can arrange a number of activities, among others may be counseling, coaching, and training for cultural institutions that aims to provide direction in the development of arts and culture.
The government is obliged to encourage the participation of cultural institutions through the provision of adequate space in the form of expression provision of arts buildings that can be accessed and used by artists to express themselves. Indeed, the government has provided a space of expression, but often the artists are not able to reach the high rent buildings by size artist (tradition). Provision of free facilities for artists who will conduct the concert was a policy eagerly awaited by the artist tradition. In addition, the government also needs to provide incentives or whatever the cultural institutions that have committed, consistent, and continuously perform activities of local arts and cultural preservation.
           Preservation of art and culture is one of the cultural strategy which is necessary and important. Through documentation, assessment, and performance art and culture of the area, we can at least preserve the dynamic, because the values
​​contained in the art and culture of the area can be known, understood, comprehended and appreciated (appreciation). Of processes that in turn would result, namely the existence of cultural awareness. With the awareness of cultural, arts and culture can be developed for positive purposes in relation to the life of the nation. With the understanding of the art and culture of the area, we will be able to know and respect the cultural diversity of Indonesian society, not stuck on ethnocentrism, so that the life of a democratic nation and state that we aspire to be realized.

3. constraints in the preservation of art and culture
Students are more interested in following the activities interests and talents other than to follow the activities associated with traditional art. Students prefer art or reasoning fields. In college , attention to the arts tradition is relatively low.
           Limitations of funds into the next constraint will arise if will preserve the art and culture of the area. Optimizing the student's role in the preservation of art and culture of the area in need of training. Training activities that lead to performance art requires funding not less. Non arts universities often do not have sufficient funds or even allocate funds for such activities. Limitations and lack of funding for training and performances in the area of
​​higher education is a reflection of the lack of attention or lack of attention may college in the preservation of art and culture of the area.


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