Sunday, January 20, 2013

Kumpulan Contoh Artikel Bahasa Inggris Terupdate


Language is the medium of human thinking in the abstract that lets the factual objects transformed into abstract symbols. Given this transformation of the human being can think about on an object, even though the object was not sense current thought process was done by him.
The material can be understood through the language of linguistics that linguistics is a science that examines language, usually resulting in theories of language,not the case with students as language learners. Students as an organism with all behavior, including processes that occur in students when learning the language can not be understood by linguistic, but can only be understood through other sciences related to it, namely Psychology. On the basis of these new disciplines emerged called Psycholinguistics or psychology is also called a language.
Related to the above, it can be said in fact people can think without using language, but language skills facilitate learning and remembering, solving problems and draw conclusions. Language allows individuals encode events and objects in the form of words. With individual language capable of abstracting experience and communicate it to others because language is a symbol of the infinite system is capable of expressing all the thinking.
Based on the above rationale, it can be said the relationship between language and thought is a very challenging theme in the study of psychology.
In line with the above opinion
. Suggests Psycholinguistics explores the relationship the between the human mind and language. Minda  or brain operates when there is language usage. Therefore, argues that psycholinguistics is the study of mental-mental processes in language usage.
Before using the language, a language user first receiving language.
In the process of speaking a process of understanding and generating speech, form sentences.
So psycholinguistics is a science that examines how exactly the speakers / users of the language form / construct sentences that language.
In essence, the communication occurs in the process of producing and understanding speech. In this connection Garnham
(2002: 1) suggests Psycholinguistics is the study of mental mechanisms that occur in people who use language, both at the time of producing or understanding speech '.
Linkage Between Language and Mind
In essence, the communication occurs in the process of producing and understanding speech. It could be argued that psycholinguistics is the study of mental mechanisms that occur in people who use language, both at the time of producing or understanding speech. In other words, in the use of language is a process of changing the mind into the code and change the code into your mind. Speech is a synthesis of the concept of a code conversion process, while understanding the message code analysis results.
Language as an expression or result of the process and as something that is processed either in the form of spoken or written language, and in another opinion  that Psycholinguistics is the study of human beings as language users, namely the study of language systems that exist in people who can explain how humans can grasp the ideas of others and how he can express his own ideas through language, either in writing or orally. When associated with language skills to be mastered by anyone, this is related to language skills, namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
All languages ​​are acquired essentially needed to communicate. Humans will only be able to say and understand one another in words that use to speak. Language learned since children are not neutral in the coding language that objective reality. Language has a subjective orientation in describing the world of human experience. Orientation was then affect how people think and say.
Behavior that appears in the language is human behavior when speaking and writing, or when he produced the language, while the behavior is human behavior does not seem to understand when they listen to or read to become something he has or something that will process the spoken or written.
From the above description it can be concluded that the scope of Psycholinguistics
achievement language, language use, language production, language processing, the encoding process, the relationship between language and human behavior, the relationship between the language of the brain. James (1998: 9) states that the acquisition Psycholinguistics includes language, language relations with the brain, the influence of language acquisition and mastery of the language of the intelligence of thinking, the relationship encoding (encoding process) and decoding (interpretation / meaning of the code) , the relationship between knowledge of language with the use of language and language change).
Humans as language users can be considered as an organism who move to reach the domains of psychology, whether cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. The ability to use both in receptive language (listening and reading) or productive (speaking and writing) involves all three domains earlier.
The term cognitive counterpart comes from knowing that cognition is knowing. In a broad sense cognition is the acquisition, structuring, and use of knowledge.  In subsequent developments that became popular as one domain, domain / area / field of human psychology which include human mental behavior associated with understanding, consideration, problem solving, information processing, deliberate, and beliefs.
According to Chaplin (2004:22) sphere is centered in the brain are also associated with konasi (the will) and affective (feeling) is concerned with the realm of taste.
Cognitive domains are centered in the brain is the most important aspects of this aspect is a well controllers Sumner other psychiatric domains, namely the realm of effective (sense) and psychomotor domains (intention). In this regard Shah (2004: 22) argued that without the cognitive hard to imagine a person can think. Without the ability to think is impossible one can understand and believe avail materials presented to him.
Is the affective domain of psychology that covers the whole phenomenon of feelings such as love, sadness, love, hate, and certain attitudes about themselves and their environment. Meanwhile, the psychomotor domain of psychology is that all physical charity a concrete and easily observed both quantity and quality due to its open. Some experts try to explain the form of the relationship between language and mind, or more collapsible again, how language affects the human mind. Of the many figures that describe the relationship between language and mind, the authors see that exposure to Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf are widely quoted by various investigators in examining the relationship of language and mind. Sapir and Worf says that no two languages ​​have in common to be considered as the same social reality. Influence of language on thought can occur through habituation and the operation of the formal aspects of language, eg grammar. Grammar and the language becomes a determinant of conceptual representations that exist in the user language. Whorf language guides for social reality and condition the mind on an issue of individual and social processes. Individuals do not live in the objective world, not only in the world of social activity as it is commonly understood, but is determined by the specific language symbols that became the medium of social communication. No two languages ​​are similar enough to represent the same reality. The world in which different societies live Whorf as judged by the same world but with different characteristics. In short, it can be concluded that a favorable view of the human world so shaped by language because the language is different then the view of the world was different. Individuals selectively filter sensory which is going in as programmed by the language he uses. That way, people who use different languages ​​have different sensory as well.
Complexity in Speech and Thought Relationship with Language Logic. Logic or in the terminology of Indonesia called "philosophical thought" in general is a study of humans, because humans who think it is a human action and thought. This action has the objective is to know. Know this is not a power tool or in humans who owned by them since birth such as eyes, ears or other sensory organs, but knew it was an act that has the so-called knowledge. The appliance or its called a thought, mind or reason.
Do not think humans since birth, although the ability is there, but generally follow the development of human physical biologically. So the ability to think in humans is the potential ability. Think in practice it is not too easy; in this context can be said that perhaps people are wrong in thinking, not because knowledge is wrong, but because his mind is not straight or not according to the rules. Suppose someone said of the shop was probably exaggerated and do not offer the bargain; 'ah was the Jakarta', this thing is called is not logical, because although it may be true that people who shop so that people Jakarta, Jakarta but not everyone is always act as if you shopped.
Conversely, if people say: A equals B, and B is equal to C, then A equals C. It was soon apparent straightness of the path of the mind, its logic, they say. So apparently a rule that should never be violated think. A scientific task to find these rules in order known by think, if there is a rule violation or deviation from the straight path of thinking, then tried by experts thought to fulfill the task, the results are indeed very useful for people who want to think. That knowledge is part of the philosophy and called people with the term "logic". The task of logic is to provide an explanation of how people should think. Others say that the logic of thinking technique that occasion, namely the real way to think.
The mind is the gatekeeper in logic, in fact what is called a thought? Does everyone have to realize that the mind can work itself automatically and can also work with the guidance of the owner of the mind?
As we have seen previously that the science of logic is basically to learn the laws, standards and formulas thinking. Now the question is whether we are all thinking that we often point out and thoughts of someone who conveyed to us may be considered logical or not?
It seemed to talk about similar things tricky, because it's easy for most of us are called to think ya think wrote. Stay follow instinct alone, what we feel, what we believe, how the mind of our group, how our personal tendencies, how personality and suggestions of what we get, then that's what we say as the fruit of the mind.
However, beyond that there are also of some of us who expressed his thoughts by following a surge of emotion such as verbal abuse, words of praise or a statement of amazement and admiration. Talking about the mind can also be difficult if we have to assess the results of the presented ideas that, if it was true or false? It's aimed at "good" or "evil", aims to tell the facts as it is or just want to distort the facts, aiming to obtain personal gain and the group or for the purposes of truth and others.
How are we to know what the person in his thoughts is a task of logic to measure it. Logic of Science will investigate, refine and assess a person's thoughts with a serious and scholarly way and aims are assigned the truth regardless of all the interests of individuals and groups. Logic will formulate, establish standards and provide laws that must be adhered to so that people can think properly, efficiently and orderly.
Now that concerns us is, how to do the same logic above?
The logic of the above can do the same in two ways, first by examining the formal logic, which is doing research on the rules of logic, the laws of logic and standards are used, whether it is correct or is wrong in drawing conclusions.



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