Tuesday, January 29, 2013

Kumpulan Artikel Bahasa Inggris Terbaru dan Lengkap


As the world has changed rapidly in the advancement of information technology. And a communications become kruasial in human life, internet answering all human needs in this regard. Became an Internet phenomenon that changed humans life. Internet has brought a convenience for everyone not just to communicate but also to do things.

In development, it turns out the use of the Internet brings negative side, by enabling the emergence of acts of anti-social and criminal behavior that is considered unlikely to occur. As a theorist says: "Crime is a product of society its self", which simply means that the people themselves who gave birth to a crime. The higher the intellectual level of a society, the more sophisticated crimes that may also occur in the community.

Evil is born as the negative impact of the development of Internet applications is often referred to as cybercrime. Now the question is CYBE crime .....??. In some literature, cybercrime is often identified as a computer crime. Or it can be interpreted also as the crime of illegal use of information technology for a variety of purposes that harm people. Computer crime is defined as an unlawful act committed by using computers as a tool / device or computer as an object, whether for profit or not, at the expense of others. In summary computer crime is defined as an unlawful act done by using sophisticated computer technology (Wisnubroto, 1999).

Internet as a result of engineering technology uses sophisticated technology not only computers but also involves in the operation of telecommunication technology. Especially when the Internet has entered its second generation, conventional computer peripheral equipment will be replaced by others who also have the ability to access the internet. Now a mobile device can be used to conduct cybercrime This makes the use of the term cybercrime or crime on the Internet would be more relevant than the term computer crime.

Based on some of the literature and practice, cybercrime has a distinctive character compared to conventional crime, among other things:

    Deeds done illegally, without rights or unethical is going on in the room / area virtual (cyberspace), so it can not be ascertained jurisdiction where the applicable state law against
    The act was carried out using any equipment that can connect to the internet
    The act resulted in material loss or immateril (time, value, service, money, goods, self-esteem, dignity, confidentiality of information) are likely to be higher than conventional crime
    The culprit is the person who mastered the use of the Internet and its applications
    The act is often done in a transnational / cross-border

Crime closely related to the use of technology for the computer-based telecommunication networks and is in some of the literature and practice are grouped in several forms, including:

    Unauthorized Access to Computer System and Service

· Crimes committed by entering / breaking into a computer network system illegally, without permission or without the knowledge of the owner of the computer network system into. Usually criminals (hackers) do so with the intention of sabotage or theft of important and confidential information. However, some are doing just because they feel challenged to try his skills to penetrate a system that has a high degree of protection. Crime is more prevalent with the growth of technology internet / intranet.

    Illegal Contents

· It is a crime to enter data or information to the internet about something that is untrue, unethical and may be illegal or disturbing public order. For example is loading a hoax or libel that would destroy the dignity or self-esteem of others, matters relating to pornography or loading an information is a state secret, agitation and propaganda against the legitimate government, and so on.

    Data Forgery

· It is a crime to falsify data on important documents stored as scriptless document over the internet. These crimes are usually directed to these documents by making e-commerce seems to happen "typo" that will ultimately benefit the offender.

    Cyber ​​Espionage

· It is a crime that utilize the Internet to conduct espionage against the other party, by entering a computer network system (computer network system) the target. These crimes are usually directed against business rivals documents or important data stored in a computerized system.

    Cyber ​​Sabotage and extortion

· Crime is done by creating a disturbance, destruction or destruction of the data, computer programs or computer network systems connected to the Internet. Usually this is done with the crime infiltrating a logic bomb, a computer virus or a particular program, data, computer programs or computer network system can not be used, does not run properly, or walk as desired by the perpetrator. In some cases after it happened, the perpetrators of the crime to the victim volunteered to fix the data, computer programs or computer network systems has been sabotaged, and of course a certain fee. Crime is often referred to as cyber-terrorism.

    Offense against Intellectual Property

· Crime is directed to Intellectual Property Rights owned by other parties on the Internet. An example is the imitation of the appearance of the web page of a site belonging to someone else illegally broadcasting the information on the internet which turned out to be trade secrets of others, and so on.

    Infringements of Privacy

· Crime is directed to a person's information that is highly personal and confidential. These crimes are usually directed towards someone's personal information stored in the form of personal data stored in computerized, which if known by others it could materially harm the victim or immateril, such as credit card number, ATM PIN numbers, defects or hidden diseases and so on.

From the various efforts made, it has been clear that cybercrime requires global mitigation action in considering the often transnational crime. Some of the important steps that must be done every state in cybercrime prevention are:

    Modernizing the national criminal law and its procedural law, which is aligned with the international conventions relating to crime
    Increasing national computer network security system according to international standards
    Improving understanding and expertise of law enforcement officials regarding the prevention, investigation and prosecution of matters related to cybercrime
    Increase citizen awareness of the problem of cybercrime and the importance of preventing crime occurred
    Increasing cooperation between countries, whether bilateral, regional or multilateral, in handling cybercrime, including through extradition and mutual assistance treaties

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