Friday, January 25, 2013

Kumpulan Artikel Bahasa Inggris Pendidikan CURRICULUM PLANNING MANAGEMENT


         Curriculum development activities should be based on management functions. To be understood as the experience to prepare students
in achieving educational goals, whether derived from within and
outside educational institutions, the curriculum should be through careful planning functions as well as systematic and integrated, good organization, implemented on the ground, and supervised its implementation.

What is happening now is the result of the past and what is happening in the future depends on the present. God will not change the fate of his people, if not such a change.

Curriculum is all the experiences that have been planned to prepare students achieve educational goals whether derived from within and outside the institution that has been planned in a systematic and integrated way.

Management curriculum planning can be defined as the skill or ability to plan and organize the curriculum. Who is responsible and how planning is carried out in a professional curriculum are two things that need to be expressed in curriculum planning.

Principal activities of the study covers the management of curriculum planning and curriculum development, implementation and improvement of the curriculum. Management planning and curriculum development based on assumption that available information and data about the problems and needs that underlie the formulation of appropriate stats.

To develop a plan one must refer to the front backwards. This plan gives effect in determining expenses or benefits, define the goals or outcomes, developing strategies to achieve the ultimate goal, devise or set priorities and sequence strategies, establish working procedures of the new method, and to develop policies.

There are two approaches in personal engagement, the first "administrative approach" or the top down, from top to bottom at the initiative of the administrators, the teachers, the condition is not involved, the second "Grass roots approach", starting from the bottom, ie from the teachers or individual school hoping to expand to other schools.

Issues that will be shown in this paper is how the management process of planning the curriculum? Troubleshooting procedure is to examine the existing literature on project management curriculum will then be concluded how the curriculum is planned.

Planning in general by Sudjana (2000), is a systematic process in accordance with the principles in decision-making, the use of scientific knowledge and techniques as well as organized activities on actions to be taken at the time to come.

Waterson in Sudjana (2000) wrote that the plan essentially is a conscious, organized, and continuously performed for choosing the best of several alternative actions for achieving particular goals.
According Oemar Hamalik (2006), curriculum planning is a learning opportunity designed to foster learners towards the desired behavioral changes and to assess changes occur on the learner.

A. Curriculum Planning Characteristics
The function of planning curriculum planning curriculum has the following functions:
1. As a guide containing instructions about the type and source of participants, the actions that need to be done, cost, facilities, and systems control or evaluation.
2. As the wheel organization and administration to create change in society in accordance with organizational goals;
3. As a motivation to carry out the education system.

Curriculum Planning Model
There are 4 (four) curriculum planning model based on the assumption of rationality, ie assumptions about the processing of information closely related to the subject matter, students, the environment and learning outcomes. The following models of curriculum planning:

1. Rational Planning Model deductive or rational Tyler
These models emphasize the logic in designing the curriculum and the program starts from the specification goals (goals and objectives). This model can be applied at all levels of decision-makers, and appropriate for centralized education system.

2. Interactive Model The Rational or irrational - Interactive Model
These models focus on the "planning" (with planning) than the "Planning for" (planning for). This curriculum plan is situational or flexible and appropriate for educational institutions that will develop school-based curriculum. Curriculum planning model is based on the growing need in the community.

3. The Diciplines Model
These models focus on the teacher as the party planning curriculum for students. The model was developed in accordance with the systematic consideration of the relevance of the knowledge of philosophical, sociological, and psychological.

4. Models without planning or non-planning models
The model was developed based on consideration of the initiative of teachers in the classroom, as decision-makers in determining learning strategies, media learning and so on.

Curriculum Design
1. Definition
Curriculum Design means the pattern (pattern), skeleton (framework) or structural organization (structural organization) used in selecting, planning, and promoting educational experiences (Saylor and Alexander in Soetopo and Soemanto, 1993). Curriculum design is crucial educational outcomes to be achieved.

2. Important Value
• Demonstrate the elements that must be considered in planning the curriculum and relationships (interrelationship) of these elements in the curriculum development process.
• It is a method for determining the selection of organizational learning experiences held in the school.
• Determine the role of teachers, students, and others involved in planning the curriculum.

Principles of Curriculum Planning
There are eight principles that must be considered in curriculum planning management activities, namely:
1. Additional planning should facilitate and be able to trigger the selection and development of potential learning experiences according to the results (objective) expected school.
2. Planning should be developed by teachers as having direct work with students.
3. Planning should allow teachers to use the principles learned in selecting and promoting activities in school.
4. Planning should allow teachers to adjust experiences with development needs, abilities, and level of maturity of the students (level of pupils).
5. Planning should invigorate teachers to consider the learning experiences so that the children are involved in activities inside and outside school.
6. Planning should be holding a continuous learning experience so that student learning activities from the very beginning it is able to provide the experience.
7. The curriculum must be planned in such a way so as to assist the formation of character, personality, and supplies a valuable knowledge base of students in accordance with the democratic and cultural character of the Indonesian nation.
8. Planning should be realistic, feasible (can be done), and acceptable (well justified).
Nature of Curriculum Planning
A curriculum planning should have the following properties:

1. Strategic
Because it is a very important instrument for achieving national education goals.

2. Is comprehensive
over all is konprenhensif covering aspects of life and society a live

3. Integrative nature
Which  broad plan, include the development dimension of the quality and quantity

4. Be realistic
Based on the real needs of learners and society

5. Humanistic nature
Focused on human resource development, both quantitative and qualitative

6. Is Futuralistic
Referring far ahead in planning for an advanced society

7. Integral Part of that support systemic education management

8. Referring Competence Development

9. Diversified according learners

10.Bersifat decentralized

B.  Curriculum Planning Principle
Curriculum planning is based on the following principles:

1. Objectivity
Planning curriculum has a clear and specific goals based on national education goals, the real input data as needed.

2. The integration
Curriculum planning combines the type and source of all disciplines, integrating school and community, internal cohesion and coherence in the delivery process.

3. Benefit
Planning and presenting curriculum provides the knowledge and skills as an input to decision-making and action, and is useful as a strategic benchmark in education.

4. Efficiency and Effectiveness
Planning the curriculum is based on principles of efficiency funds, manpower, and time in achieving educational goals and outcomes.

5. Suitability
Planning curriculum tailored to the goals of learners, the ability of education, science and technology progress, and change / development community.

6. Balance
Planning the curriculum the balance between the types of fields of study, available resources, and the capabilities and programs that will be implemented.

7. Simplicity
Planning the curriculum makes it easy for the users who need guidance in the form of study materials and methods to implement the learning process.

8. Sustainable
Planning the curriculum laid out on an ongoing basis in line with the stages, types and levels of education units.

9. Standardization
Standardized curriculum planning with appropriate levels and types of education units, from central to local.

10. Quality
Planning curriculum contains quality learning tools, so that helped improve the quality of the learning process and the quality of graduates as a whole.

C. Development of curriculum systems approach
Based approach to curriculum development system includes the steps of:
1. Formulate the problem (identification required)
2. Analysis of the problem to be transformed into goals
3. Developing problem-solving (designing instructional methods and materials)
4. The implementation in the form of an experiment or trial
5. Assessing program

D. Goal Formulation Ability
Quality of workforce skills need to be improved in order to carry out their roles and duties efficiently and effectively. These capabilities include the ability of the knowledge and skills of a particular job issues, knowledge and skills about the delivery system, as well as the attitudes and values ​​that animate personality. Based on the formulation of further capabilities defined curriculum goals and objectives of the ability

Curriculum Content
1. The way compile curriculum content
• Elements of the scientific field
• Type of subjects
• Discussion and sub subject
• Syllabus
2.Program Study
Overall learning experience

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