COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN STUDENTS’ ABILITY
IN THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF MTs. AL-KHAERIYAH
AND MTs. NURMADANI NW SEMOYANG IN TRANSLATING
ENGLISH FOLKLORE INTO INDONESIAN LANGUAGE
IN THE SCHOOL YEAR 2005/2006
This chapter discusses about (1) background of the study, (2) statement of the problems, (3) objective of the study, (4) significant of the study, (5) hypothesis, (6) scope of the study, (7) assumption of the study, and (8) definition of key terms.
1.1. Background of the Study
English is one of the most important international language, which is widely used in many circumstances of any affairs. It plays an important role as shown by its use in formal as well as informal settings.
Many experts have defined translation with different focuses, but in this writing the writer would like to refer to a definition written by House in Hanafi (1996: 24) “Translation is the replacement of a text in the source language semantically and pragmatically equivalent text in the target language”.
According to House’s definition, there are three main points to be considered. The term “Replacement” refers to the transfer of textual materials written in one language into another language. Secondly, the term “Source Language” refers to the language formerly or previously used to put on ideas in textual materials before the translation process. Finally, the term “Target Language” conveys the language to which the textual materials are translated. When translating an English novel into Indonesian, for instance, English will be the source language, while Indonesian is the target one.
Furthermore, the term translation skill suggest the translator to be able to transfer the contents of textual material into a semantically and pragmatically equivalent textual material other language.
Translation skill has been unavoidable to happen nowadays, especially under the pressure of globalization era today, since the last few years. The cooperation in terms of men power between two nations require not only speaking, reading, listening and writing skills but also quick and good translation skill, of both oral and textual materials for one language into another. A foreign company operating in Indonesia, for example, will need an Indonesian whose ability is not only in speaking, reading, listening and writing, but also in translation. In other words, they need to understand the textual material written in Indonesian language and therefore they need a good translator. On the other hand it also expresses certain message to Indonesian counterparts who do not understand English and in that case the company needs a translator as well.
In other words, when translating any written discourse, students will be able to understand it easily if they really know the meaning of the words or diction of what they use. Accordingly, translation process requires or demands a wide range of words mastery, which will contribute a good quality of translation.
In this study, the writer attempts to investigate a correlation between student’s of Mts. Al-Khaeriyah and Mts. Nurmadani NW Semoyang in translating English folklore.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1. To what extent is the achievement of the second year students of MTs. Al-Khaeriah NW Semoyang in the school year 2005/2006 in translating English folklore?
2. To what extent is the achievement of the second year students of MTs Nurmadani NW Semoyang in the school year 2005/2006 in translation?
3. To what extent is the comparison between MTs. Al-Khaeriah and MTs. Nurmadani NW Semoyang in translating English folklore into Indonesian language?
1.3. Objectives of the Study
The objective of the study is to find out:
1. The achievement of the second year students of MTs. Al-Khaeriyah NW Semoyang in translation skill.
2. The achievement of the second year students of MTs. Nurmadani NW Semoyang in translation skill too.
3. The comparation among students’ ability in translating English folklore.
1.4. Significance of the Study
The results of this study are expected to be of any use theoretically and practically.
a. As a reference to other researchers who want to study more intensively about this problem.
b. The result of this study is expected to be able to add some concepts of language teaching, especially the concept of teaching translation skill.
a. Identify the current levels of MTs. Al-Khaeriyah and MTs. Nurmadani NW Semoyang in the school year 2005.2006.
b. Find out the students’ ability in translating English folklore of the second grades of MTs. Al-Khaeriyah and MTs. Nurmadani NW Semoyang in the school year 2005/2006.
This sample research is based on the alternative hypothesis (Ha) that “There is a difference ability of the students’ in translating English folklore”.
The problem of the recent study is about to what extent is the ability of the students of MTs. Al-Khaeriyah and MTs. Nurmadani NW Semoyang in translation? to give tentative answers to the students, it is hypothesized that there is a different ability between the students of MTs. Al-Khaeriyah and MTs. Nurmadani NW Semoyang in translating English folklore.
1.6. The Scope of the Study
In this part, the writer discusses about the subject and the object of the research as follows:
The subject of this study is the second year students of MTs. Al-Khaeriyah and MTs. Nurmadani NW Semoyang in the school year 2005/2006, and the object of this research is to know the students’ ability in translating English folklore.
1.7. Assumption of the Study
1. There is a different ability of the students in translating English folklore or their ability in translation skill, so the students needs further investigation.
2. The subject of this study has similar vocabulary mastery source, they come from same environments.
1.8. The Definition of Key Terms
In order to avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation among the readers of this study, the writer defined some terms concerning with this study.
Those terms are as follows:
1. Translation is the replacement of phrases in target language (TL) by its equivalent in the source language (SL).
2. Translation is a process of replacing (reproducing) transferring text from source language (SL) to the target language (TL), equivalent in such a way that we retain the meaning and style.
3. The students’ ability is the knowledge which has been achieved by the students either directly or indirectly.
4. English folklore is short tale that the writer takes based on fact and uses English language.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter discusses about (1) translation, (2) relevant study, and (3) theoretical framework.
The advancement of human life does not only requires the basic humans’ ability in listening, reading, speaking and writing in their own native language and also ability in listening, reading, speaking and writing in other language.
Beside the above language performance, there is another important skill in translating English folklore. This skill becomes more important under the needs for the rapid technological advancement in the un-developing nations. Indonesia as one of the nations needs skill to learn information concerning science and technology, most of which are written in English. Besides learning the language in all education level (SD, SLTP, SMU and PT), the nations face the increasing demands for translator. For this reason, translation deserves repetitive practice in a language classroom.
In relation to English as a foreign language (FL) in Indonesia, it must first of all think about the functions of a target language (TL) in connection with translation skill. Halim (1980: 1), an expert in Indonesian linguistics and language study, in his book called “Fungsi Politik Bahasa Nasional” spells out there are important roles that the language may play. In the first place, he stipulates that Indonesia, as a part of world community needs fixed foreign language especially English to learn as a means of international communication. In this era of globalization, it is almost impossible to speak only your mother tongue but you need to speak another language as a second language. This seems to be a must because the intensity of internationally meeting, trade or exchange is increasingly in today’s era.
Catford in Hanafi (1986: 23) defines the term as “The replacement of textual material in one language by equivalent textual material in another language”. Catford in this case, stress on the nation of the translated text should be equivalent of the farmer text to the translated one is a marker.
2.1.1. Definition of Translation
Generally, a translation as a process is always undirectional, namely it is always performed in given direction source language (SL) into target language (TL).
Catford in Widiyamarta (1989: 12) defines that the world translation differently base on the focuses given. The definitions are as follows:
a. Translation is the replacement of textual material is one language (SL) by equivalent textual in another language (TL).
b. Translation is creative process which always leaves the translator a freedom of choice between several approximately equivalent possibilities of realizing situational meaning.
According to Nida in Hanafi (1986: 22) that “translating consists message of the source language, first in meaning and secondly in style.
In Dissertation House “A Model for Translation Skill Assessment” in Hanafi (1986: 22) explains the definition of translation is replacement of the text in the source language semantically and practically equivalent text in the target language.
Translation is the transfer of meaning, words are vehicle of communication. The role of grammar governs the manipulation of words in this process and certain principle determines the use of vocabulary items. The understanding of these which often intuitive is necessary in order to carry out transfer of (replace/reproduce) the content of message form one language (SL) into another language (TL). In addition external linguistic factors are brought into plays together with that are internal factors. The factors are as follows: (a) subject matter of the text; (b) objective of the original text; (c) time and place.
2.1.2. Types and Categories of Translation
After knowing the definition of translation, it should also know the type and categories of translation in order to have wide scope of it.
Catford (1969: 21) divides translation into three distinctive types, namely:
a. Full translation vs Partial translation
In a full translation every part of the SL text in replaced by TL text material while in partial translation some parts of the SL text are left untranslated.
b. Total translation vs Restricted translation
In a total translation, SL grammar lexis are replaced by an equivalent TL grammar and lexis. Restricted translation at the grammatical and lexical by equivalent TL grammar with no replacement of lexis and that of lexis by equivalent TL lexis with no replacement of grammar.
c. Rank of translation
The rank of translation can be in the form of: word to word, group to group, sentence to sentence, paragraph to paragraph and so on.
In this type of translation, lexical and grammatical adjustment should be applied to achieve equivalent in terms of meaning.
In this article; linguistic aspect of translation, Jacobson (1959: 234) distinguishes three type of translation.
a. Intralingual translation or rewarding, it is an interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs in the same language, e.g. paraphrasing.
b. Interlingual translation or translation proverb, it is an interpretation of verbal signs by mean of some other language, e.g. the replacement of SL text to the TL equivalent.
c. Intersemiotic, it is an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs system, e.g. from verbal art into music, dance, cinema or painting.
From these categories, it should also include in this category translation. Works done solely in the interests of trade goods consumer can be sold in other countries or at least in English. To the work of the translators who perform this service is seldom published, seldom appreciated, and seldom criticized yet. The claim that their work demands accuracy in the choice or precision in the use of words.
2.1.3. Process of Translation
Quoting Bathgate’s A survey of translation theory in van tall tot taal, Jargang, number 2, June 1981, A. Widyamarta explains that the translation process of the message transferred from source language, should go through some steps namely tuning, analysis, understanding, terminology, restructuring, checking and discussing (Widyamarta, 1989: 40).
2.1.4. Quality of Translation
In translation, the appearance of its synonym is very important. Zener in Hanafi (1986) states that: synonym is basic criteria for translation, but not a whole synonym, synonym doesn’t mean identical of a different response. It is because of the difference of culture, history and situation.
To achieve a good translation, it needs the translator’s skill in every aspects, it is not only the encouragement and his talents, but also his widest experience which is helpful in order to get a good translation result as stated by Savory in the principle of good translation.
Besides some principle above, it is better to get perfect product (translation). Perfect here means that if that product, in this case translations convey the spirit of the word, combination, absolutely related to the vocabulary mastery. By mastering the language (TL) vocabulary mastery, it will be easier for the translator to find out his idea based on the original text.
In this part, the writer states the relevant studies that will be possible in adding the readers’ view on phrase translation. In the following instance, actually the writer does no find out yet the same study on translation skill. There fore, there are several studies about translation that are relevance to this study.
The first study was done by Yasin (2001) on the effect of translation ability toward English sentence comprehension. The subjects of the study were the second year students of SMU 1 Negeri Sakra in the school year 2000/2001. the problem were: to what extent do the second year students have ability on sentence comprehension. The study was aimed at investigating the level of students translation ability at SMU 1 Negeri Sakra, and how high the level of students’ sentence comprehension was. The result of the study indicated that the second year students of SMU 1 Negeri Sakra have fair level in translating ability and fair level in English sentence comprehension.
Longman (1978: 321) states that: Translation is a process of sending message from one language to other language. It can also be said that translation is a process of understanding a target text, here English in order to target the point or the idea in score text, here Indonesia.
Actually many translators or students face the same problems in translating skill both methodology and procedurally. In line with this, the important things that make the students’ success in translating skill into Indonesia will be mostly determined by mastery of vocabulary or grammar of the two languages.
Based on the above explanation, the writer points out that the mastery of the vocabulary, grammar and other aspects of language will be able to increase the students’ ability in translating skill.
This chapter discusses about (1) research design, (2) population and sample, (3) instrument, (4) technique of data collecting, and (5) data analysis
In research activity, the function of method is very important because the success or the failure of a research highly depend on the method applied. It is difficult to achieve the object of the research without using an accurate method.
There are some steps applied in the process of describing the study. First of all, the writer formulates the title of the study due to translation skill. This research is to determine the dependent variable (translation skill).
Population and Sample
Population of the study is the second year students of MTs. Al-Khaeriyah and MTs. Nurmadani NW Semoyang in the school year 2005/2006 which consist of 32 students and considers have accepted the same treatment on English lesson. Considering the number of students the writer decides to take all of the population as the sample of the study (research population) as what suggested by Arikunto (1998: 107) that if population is less than 100 it is better to take all the population as the subject of the study, but if the population is more than one hundred, it allows the writer takes only 15-20% or 25-30% to be investigated as the sample of population. In this research uses all of the students. So, the sample is 32 students.
Bellow will express the number of population :
Table 1.1 : Population and sample at the second year students of MTs. Al-Khaeriyah and MTs. Nurmadani NW Semoyang
Arikunto (1998: 137) states that research method is a manner that used to collect the data, but instrument that is used to collect the data. Based on the above opinion, the instrument that is used to collect the data is test. The test used is multiple choice tests as the instrument of collecting data.
The translation skill will be measured by multiple choice of translation test, because this test requires the students to comprehend the meaning of the certain word by inferring from context. Besides, the score is easy and consistent.
To construct a good complement test, Liamzon (1980: 119-120) gives suggestions, first, it is important that contexts be provided when the meanings of lexical items are asked for. Second it is necessary to avoid including items which yield grammatically unacceptable sentence if used to fill the blank.
3.3.1. Test Validity
In addition, Tuckman (1988: 45) defines validity as the extent to which a test measure what it should measure. Various methods can be to assess the validity of a test, on of which is content validity is prominent in the achievement test. Content validity is most frequently used in the evaluation of achievement test with this type of examination, test content is essential.
Furthermore, Tuckman (1988: 46) mentions that in which the sample of situation of performances measures is representative of the set from which the sample is drawn is considered to have content validity.
3.3.2. Test Reliability
Test reliability is defined as the degree to which a test consistently measures whatever it measures (Gay, 1987: 25). In other words, the reliability of the test scores could be estimated by administering test. The formula is presented as follows:
Reliability Estimate (KR 21) =
Where: K = the number of items in test
M = the mean of the test score
S = stands for the standard deviation of the test scores
The reason for selecting KR21 is that formula is simple and yields approximately the result as KR 20 formula. The formula provides a measure of internal consistency. Brown in Hasanatai (2000) points out that internal consistency estimates are the ones most of ten reported in language studies because they have the distinct advantage of being estimated from a single of a test. Internal consistency means that each in a test contributes to a meaningful total score.
Technique of Data Collection
To obtain the data needed for this study the writer intends to write test for setting the data about translation skill. In this test, the score (multiple choice) is 4 for correct answer and 0 for incorrect one. The score from the test is as the main data about the student’s translation skill.
The administration of each result uses the following steps: first the researcher finds the data about the result of the students’ examination in translating English folklore into Indonesian language. Second the researcher will analyze the data.
At first, data is formulated in order to find out the means score by using the following formula:
Where: M = the mean score
x = the translation score
y = the translation skill
N = the number of the student’s taking the test
The writer applied the following formula to calculate the standard deviation (SD)
Where: x2 is definition score from the mean of translation (x)
y2 is definition score from the mean of translation skill (y)
For the sake of statistical analysis it is important to change the alternative hypothesis (Ha) into null hypothesis (Ho).
At last, the writer employed the following formula to find out the translation skill of the students to determine the real significance for the sake of the interpretation of the result. The writer applied the following formula to calculate the standard deviation (SD).
Where: t is computation of correlation
M is the mean of each group
N is the number of sample of each group
A is the sample of experimental group
B is the sample of control group
x is deviation of x1and x2
y is deviation of y1and y2
S is the sigma
Ö is the root of
Table 1.2 : The Grading System for the Students’ Score
(Adopted from Depdikbud in Hasanatai, 2001: 24)
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