Saturday, January 12, 2013



                                                                        CHAPTER I

1.1    Background of the Study
                          We use English everyday but we don’t know it. May be we do not speak English with our parent or our friends but we always read in the books, magazine, papers, movies and etc. every day. So learning English is very important to know far increasing our world.
In English there are four language skills, they are listening, speaking, reading and writing. The students must master the four of language skills so they can use English actively and also passively. Writing as a part of the language skills besides listening, speaking and reading, must be taught maximally by the teacher to the student.
Writing is also one media of communication. According to Byrne (1980:24) writing is a primary means of recording speech, even though it must be acknowledged as a secondary medium of communication, so that the writer can conclude that writing is very important as one media of  communication, that can help us to have a good socialization, can express our idea, feeling, and our opinion so that we can have a good interaction with our  society.
We can see the importance of writing in daily life and also in our social life, like in education and business aspect, for example when we write letter or application letter. Writing also gives some other benefits. Besides  being means of communication, writing can also create jobs. In beginning writing, it is just an activity to express our idea, opinion, or feeling in the text. Writing can also be a hobby to spend our time, but finally in this modern life,  people can get money from doing their writing, for example a journalist, novelist or scrip writer.
Although, writing is very important for us, it is a difficult subject especially for the student. The reason is because writing is a mixture of our  idea, vocabulary and also grammar, according to Heaton in his book”Writing English Language Test”(1975:138);
Writing skill are more complex and difficult to teaching, requiring, and mastering not only of grammatical and rhetorical devices but also conceptual and judgment, because of the difficulties of  writing, some efforts have been done to solve the problem .The main objective is to make the writing become easier to learn for the students.

From the Heaton’s opinion, the writer can conclude that writing is a very important subject because in writing we must share idea from our   brain, it is not easy to translate concept in our brain to be a written language, and we must also be clever to choose and to combine the vocabulary to create something that is meaningful .We also must pay attention to the grammar, so it is normal if the student think that writing is a difficult subject because they must pay attention to many things (idea, concept, vocabulary and grammar).
Besides that reason, there is another factor that makes writing be the most difficult subject. The other reason is that there are a lot of many kinds of  texts in English, such as narrative, descriptive, recount, spoof and many more. Each text has different characteristics. There are generic social function, structure and lexicogrammatical features. Usually the student can differentiate each text from another and they mix all kinds of texts. This will be a challenge for the teacher to find out how the student can distinguish each kind of text from another.

This paper the writing that writer  want to emphasize is narrative writing because the tense that commonly used is simple past tense and its pattern is not difficult to remember by student. The other reason is because the students usually write about their selves even their experience or sharing the feeling which was felt by them in one event. To make it easy in teaching the media that is used to help writing process is internet. The facility that is used is blog because when the students put their writing in a blog it is meant the other people can give comments directly including teacher or their friends, so they can know about the lack and surplus of their writing. From those comment the students are hoped to improve their writing more and more because the application is very important beside some theories.
1.2    Reasons for Choosing the Topic
Some reasons why the writer chooses the titles “the use of animation movies for developing students’ writing skill of narrative text, a case study of  teaching English at eleventh grade students of SMA N10 Semarang are:
a)    A narrative text is the most interesting of writing genre for students of Senior High School because it tells about something imaginative so it will be quite relevant to their world and make them produce a text.
 b)   As a student of the education program of the English Department the writer has a great interest in this problem. The writer would like to find out more about the problems in teaching writing especially to students in Senior High School.
The writer uses Animation Movie because it is very interesting for the students  and also has a simple story.
1.3    Statement of the Problem
Base on the description of background  above, the writer formulates the problem of the recent study as stated in the following research question, which read as follows :
1. To what extent the use animation movie develop students’ ability in writing narrative text ?
2. Do the use animation movie develop students’ ability in writing narrative text?
1.4  Purpose of the study
This study aimed :
1. To find out to what extent the use animation movie develop students’ ability in writing narrative text ?
2. To find out use animation movie develop students’ ability in writing narrative text.
1.5 Assumption of study
The research conducted is based on the following assumption, that :
1. The teacher of SMA N 2 Mataram use animation movie in teaching narrative text.
2. The use animation movie develop student ability in writing narrative text.
1.6 The Scope of Study
The scope of this investigation to be discussed in this writing is limited to be following point :
1. The study is limited to develop the student’s ability in writing narrative text
2. This investigation is limited ant second year students’ of SMA N Mataram

1.7  Significance of Study
1. For the teachers
The research findings are expected to be used as a consideration in teaching writing in the classroom.
2. For the students
It may motivate students to improve their interest English since they will find out that writing, not always difficult to learn.
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
1. Animation movie
Animation movie is distinguished from live action ones by the unusual kinds of work that are done at production stage. It is not do continuously filming outdoor action in the real time, but they a series by shooting one frame a time.
2. Writing
Writing is a primary means of recording speech, even though it must be acknowledge as a secondary medium of communication, Byrne ( 1980 : 24 )
3. Narrative Text
Narrative text is on one the forms  of developing writing, for example characters told the history of something based on the development of writing from time to time, Parera ( 1993 : 5 )
4. Student
       Student are who ever register as learners is educational school, junior, senior high school and at university, ( Arikunto : 1992 :11)

                                                 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A film is one of the visual aids that can be used in a writing class. It makes lessons more fun. It can also be used to create situation for writing classes more clearly, that the students have big enthusiasm in teaching learning process in writing class. (Harmer, 2001:282)
2.1 General Concept of Film
Film, as stated in Microsoft Encarta (2006), is a series of images that are projected into a screen to create the illusion of motion. Furthermore, motion pictures are also called movies, film or cinema, are one of the most  popular forms of entertainment, that have people to immerse themselves in an imaginary world for a short period of time.
But movies or film can also teach people about history, science, human  behavior and any other subjects. Some films combine entertainment with instruction, makes the learning process more enjoyable. In all its forms cinema is an art as well as a business, and those who make motion pictures take great pride in their creation. (
Motion pictures are recorded using specially designed cameras that capture the images on rolls of film. After being processed and printed, the film is run through a projector, which shines light through the film so that the images are sparked on a screen. Most movies have accompanying sound. The functions of film are to educate, entertain, enlighten and inspire the audiences, and in this case the writer tried to use film or movies in the teaching and learning process of narrative text writing. The writer thought that film can also be used as an alternative method in teaching narrative text writing, because the student will get a new experience in their class that is quite different from their daily experience in their class, and for the teacher a film can be used as an alternative method in teaching that is suitable with their classroom situation.
2.1.1    Type of Film
       Borwell and Thomson ( 1997 : 50 ) defined the type of movie or film as follow ;
1. Documentary Film
A documentary film support to present factual information about the world outside the film. As a type of film, documentary present themselves as factually trustworthy.
2. Factional Film
A factional film present imaginary being, place or event. Yet, If a film is fictional, that does not mean that is completely, unrelated actually. For one thing, not everything shown or implied by the fiction films needs to be imaginary, a typical fictional film. Stages is event ; they are designed, planned, rehearsed, filmed and refilmed.

3. Animated Film
Animated film are distinguished from live action ones by the unusual kinds of work that are done at production stage. Animation film do not do continuously filming outdoor action in the real time, but they create a series of image by shooting one frame at a time.
4. Experimental or   avant – grade film
Some filmmakers set out to create films that challenge orthodox motion of what movies can show and how it can show it.
2.1.2    Film As Visual Aids in Teaching Writing
As a good teacher, we need to use visual aids, as method in teaching and learning process because by visual aids, teacher can give new atmosphere in their class so that the students have a big enthusiasm in teaching learning process, besides visual aid can help students master the material that the teacher give them.
From Heaton’s statement beside the other language skill ( reading, listening, and  ) , writing is one of language skill that is more complex and difficult than the others because the students must mastering the grammar and vocabulary. The students must have concept of writing not only in their brain but they also have to translate it in writing language, and it is difficult to write concept that exist in our brain. So more students assume that writing is a difficult lesson and the result is that the students did not want to study writing or make a text of writing. It is important for teacher to find a method that can make students easily master the material and they can also enjoy the writing class. The writer hopes that film be an alternative method in teaching narrative text writing.
From that statement, the writer can conclude that visual aids are very important and useful in teaching process to that students will be more enthusiastic in learning writing in classroom.
2.2 Importance of Writing
Some importance feature of writing activities that are usually done by people are as follows :
1. Teachers write some important thing on the black board, or students may write some notes that are dictated by the teacher.
2. Lot of people who are going to apply for job in offices write application letters. Today, many companies ask applications to write their forms in English. An applicant must be fluent both in spoken and written English.
3. Many organizations or foundations get offers from foster parents from foreign countries for some student who have good achievement in their study. The student who is going to be selected is asked first to write an essay in English about   their country ( in this case Indonesia Students ). For those who get the opportunity to win the selection are asked to write in English to their foster parents at least once a month ; therefore, they need to have ability to write in an acceptable English.
2.2.1 General Concept of Writing
According to Enre ( 1988 : 148 ) the aims of writing are :
a. Desire to explain or to inform.
b. Desire to tell something at it was looked and heard.
c. Desire to tell something about happened.
d. Desire to convince someone
2.2.2 Element of Writing
Harr is stated that ( 1969 : 68 – 69 ) there are four element of writing, there are :
a. Mastering vocabulary / diction
b. Mastering Grammatical rule’s / sentence structure
c. Coherence
d. Spelling
2.2.3 Steps in Writing
1. Exploring Ideas
First, writing involves discovering ideas. Before writing, let our whatever you can.
2. Writing Draft I
The second step of writing process involves writing your thoughts on paper or the computer. Do not worry about making mistakes because you will probably change your mind and your wording later. This step is called writing draft I. It is a time to relax, write quickly and begin organizing your though.
3. Organizing
After you have put your ideas into words. You can begin organizing them. This process involves :
a. Selecting, subtracting and adding
You have to think again about your purpose and audience. What goals do you want to accomplish – to inform, persuade or entertain ? What point do you want to make ? And What should you tell your readers so that you can accomplish the goals ? It is better that you return to your pre writing and do the following :
1. Underline or highlight the best ideas of your brainstorming list, putting related ideas together.
2. Choose the part of the clushering diagram that has the best ideas.
3. Circle or highlight the best part of your pre writing
b. Outlining
4. Writing revision I
You have done some writing revision I, selected your best ideas, expanded them, and arranged them in some reasonable order. Now you can begin the first paragraph. Don’t worry about being perfect, so write fast as if you were speaking to your readers.
5. Revising the Draft I
a. Make notes in the margins or write new material on separate sheets of paper.
b. Circle words you think you misspelled or that you want to change later.
c. Tape or staple additions where you want them to go.
d. On the computer, use cut and paste or insert commands to move them to a new page.
e. Print out a double space copy for revision : Look over and revise in pencil ( Flower, 1987 : 78 )
6. Producing the revision II
There are two steps in producing revision II, they are :
a. Editing
After you have revised your paragraph, you can edit your work. Check it carefully. Focus on grammar, words, choice, verb forms, punctuation, and spelling. Read the paper more than once. Copy it cover or print it out again with all your corrections. This draft should represent your best effort.
b. Proofreading
The final stage in the revision process is proofreading. That means carefully reading your draft more than once to check that your revisions and editorial changes.
2.3 General Concept of Narrative Text
Parera ( 1993 : 5 ) had opinion that a narrative was one of the forms of developing writing, for example character told the history of something based on the development of writing from time to time.
2.3.1    Generic Structure of Narrative
The generic structure of narrative are :
First is an orientation. The readers are introduced to the some minor characters. Some indication is generally given of where the action and when an action happen.
Secondly is complication. This is where the writer tell how the problem arises, sometime something unexpected events will happen.
Thirdly is resolution. It is an optional closure of event. The complication may be resolved for better or for worse, but it is rarely left completely unresolved. The writer can conclude that resolution is the end of a story.
2.3.2    Teaching Writing of a Narrative Text
Many students find writing to be the most difficult lesson since they have to write in English to procedure an English text. They have to write down what they think of in their mind and state in on a paper by using a correct procedure.
To figure the problems out, the writer tries to use film of narrative text in teaching written cycle. Students can feel more relaxed in learning writing and it will be easier for them to produce a narrative text.

1.1    Research Design
The type of study is a pre-experimental design. Pre experimental designis often spent in the experiment that is not true. Therefore, often referred to as "quasi experiments" or pretending to experiment. So called because the experiments of this type do not meet the requirements in the way of scientific experiments that can be said to followcertain rules.
1.1.1        Research Setting
The research are conducted at the school of SMPN 8 Mataram, which addressed on Jendral Sudirman street No. 11 Rembiga Mataram, Which stands on a land area of ​​11.536 m2.

1.2    Time of The Research
1.2.1        Planning Stage
1.        Review of the literature.
Mechanism of an education activity is a positive change in the cognitivestructure of students who are taught. On the other hand, it cannot be separated frommany of the inhibiting factors both internal and external factors.
            Departingfrom the experience of teaching and learning by educators over the years, researchers realized that so many things overlooked in the teaching activities ofparticular subjects English.
2.        Determination of Problem
Giventhe complexity of the problem of education / teaching, especially in formaleducational activities, the researchers tried to describeand identify misconceptionseffectiveness in teaching verb at SMPN 8 Mataramin academic year 2011/2012 in particular on VIICclass. Therefore needs to be studied and researchedon learning programthat is expected to minimize the effectiveness of the student.
3.        Test Instrument
Preparation of identification tests the effectiveness of teachingverb by using TotalPhysical Response method. Further testscarried out on 44 students VIIC classat SMPN 8 Mataram in academic year 2011/2012. Had it fromthe test results were obtained a number of test itemsthat meet the criteriawill be used as validinstruments in the study.
1.2.2        Implementation Stage
At this stage preliminary observations conducted in the form of the test. This activity is carried in seventh grade at SMPN 8 Mataram in academic year 2011/2012.
          Then proceedwith the final test in seventh grade at SMPN 8 Mataram in academic year 2011/2012, and then perform data collection. Data on effectivenessin teaching verbsby using total physicalresponse.
1.2.3        Final Stage
Datawere analyzed the results of further research. Analyzing data are descriptive statistical analysis. Descriptive analysisincluded frequencies, percentage, alternative, alternative answers, anddisclosure of the reasons for the selection of alternativeoptions and answers.

1.3    Variables and Research Design
1.3.1        Variable Research
Variablesin this study consisted of two kinds of variable effectivenessas an independent variable, and variable use of thetotal physical responseas the dependent variable.
1.3.2        Research Design
Theresearch design used is the One Group Pretest-Posttest Designis described as follows:
  O1         X      O2

(Arikunto,2010: 124)
O1 = observationmade ​​earlier by providing pre-test.
X = Treatmentusing the experimental / teaching.
O2 = finalobservation is done by giving the post-test.

1.4    Population and Sample
1.4.1        Population
Populationis the entire subject of research. If someone wants examine all the elements that exist within the study area, the research is the studypopulation. (Arikunto, 2010: 173)
The subject population in this study are all students in seventh gradeat SMPN 8 Mataram in academic year 2011/2012.
1.4.2        Sample
Representative sample is partiallyor population studied. Named after the study sampleif we intend togeneralize the results of the study sample. Thatthe intent isto generalize the conclusions raise asa research applicable to the population. (Arikunto, 2010: 174).
The sample in this study is one class is a VII class. The sampling method used is a random class. This method is used because of concerns the limitations of the researcher to conduct the randomization of all students in grade VII. So that only samples taken at random from the eight existing classes, namely VIIA class, VIIB class, VIIC class, VIID class, VIIE class, VIIF class, VIIG class and VIIH class. Sample is VIIC class totaling 44 students.

1.5    Data Collection Techniques
Data collection techniques used in this study is the observationtechnique (observation). This study uses one type of instrument used in theobservation (observation) initial tests to students and observations of the final test after being given an experimentalprogram / ​​teachingto the students. The tests are made ​​by researchers in the form of essay test.

1.6    Data AnalysisTechniques
Stages of processing the data in this study are as follows:
1.6.1        Analysis Instrument
Analyticalinstruments that do include calculations based on data validity and reliability of test results of the trial.
1.        Calculation of the validity of the test item
The effectiveness of the testinginstruments students use the formula "r point biserial". Calculation of item validity tests were performed using the
Description :
                            γpbi   =  Biserial correlation coefficient
Mp= Mean scoreof subjects whorespond well to the item you are looking forvalidity.
Mt   =  Mean totalscores of all subjects(respondents).
Sd = standard deviation oftotal scores
p= proportion of students who correctly answer the item to i
q = proportion of students who answered incorrectly (q = 1 -p) (Arikunto, 2010: 326)
Having obtainedthe value, then interpretedby the table rproduct moment with the criteria if γpbicount ˃ r tablethe item isvalid and if otherwise γpbi count ˂r so the item is notvalid.
2.        Calculation of reliability tests using the KR 20 formula
Calculation of reliability tests was approached byKuder and Richardson
......  (3.2)
r 11= Reliability of instruments
k = number ofitems about
p = proportion of subjects who answered correctly
q = proportion of subjects who answered incorrectly (q = 1 - p)
Vt = total variance
pq = Number of the multiplication between p and q (Arikunto, 2010: 231)
Reliabilityof the results of calculations are then throughproduct moment if r 11 ˃ r the table so the item is reliable and if r 11 ˂ r the table so theitem is not reliable.
3.        The level of difficulty Item
The difficultylevel is a matterwhich is used as will be shown into the following table:
Table 1. Point about the difficultylevel of classification.
P Value
0,00 - 0,30
0,30 - 0,70
0,70 - 1,00

(Arikunto, 2010: 208)

Test questions difficulty level is calculated by comparing studentswho answer questions correctly on thesubject entirely. The formula for calculating the level of difficulty of questionsis as follows.
P = Index trouble
B= Number of studentswho answered the questioncorrectly
JS= Total number of students participants test
(Arikunto, 2005 : 208)
4.        The Problemdifferentiator
About the distinguishing features is the ability of amatter to distinguishbetween students who are clever or skillfulwith students whoare less intelligent or capable of low (Arikunto, 1998).
The figures indicatethe magnitude of differenceis called the index of discrimination, abbreviated D.
The formula for determining the index distinguishing features are as
D  = Discrimination index
BA= The number of students who answered correctlyon the itemabout
JA= The number of studentgroups up
BB= Number of studentswho answered correctly the item under question
JB= Number of studentsunder the
PA= proportion of thegroup who answered correctly
PB= proportion of thegroup who answered correctly
(Arikunto, 2005:213)
The classification of distinguishing features (D) are as follows:
Table 1. Point about the difficultylevel of classification.
D Value
0,00 – 0,20
0,20 – 0,40
0,40 – 0,70
0,70 – 1,00

In this study about the items used were items about who has enough distinguishingcriteria, good, andexcellent.
1.6.2        Analysis Data
This analysis aims to identify misconceptionsand train of thought every student ineach item.
The measures analyzed as follows.
1.        Knowing the number of respondents who take the test.
2.        Calculate the frequencies of each alternative in the form of student choice.
3.        Finding the percentage of items by finding the ratio between the number of correct choices on each item and each alternative choice answers on each respondent.


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