THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN EFL TEACHING BY USING JIGSAW MODEL : A CASE STUDY AT SECOND GRADE STUDENT OF MTS.AL-INTISHOR MATARAM IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2012/2013
1.1 Background of the Study
Language as means of communication play very important role in social relationship among human being. English as one the international language is very important since it requires as a bridge communication. In in Indonesia, English is one of the compulsory subjects which is taught in Junior High School, Senior High School and University as the first foreign language.
There are some problems of English education in Indonesia. One of the problems is students get difficulties to comprehend texts, especially in Evaluation National test. The majority problem is reading comprehension. It is because the students are lack of motivation in studying. It needs learning method variously in order to study maximally and increase student’s motivation to study English well since they are at tenth grade or the first grade, especially for reading comprehension. Teacher must be able to give learning model properly.
As long as the observation made by the writer in MTs.AL-intishor Mataram, the writer has interviewed the teacher of English about how teaching and learning process done. Based on the interview, the writer concluded that the method which is used by the teacher was not really interesting for the students of junior high school, because he only asked the students to repeat him. The activity was really monotonous and made students bored. And then, the writer made an observation immediately in the classroom while teaching and learning process done. What the writer saw the same as what the teacher told to the writer in his interview. The writer saw that, the students were bored and sleepy because they never made a movement since the teaching and learning process done. The activity was monotonous so that they were bored.
Based on the fact seen by writer, it can be concluded that the teaching and learning proves done by the teacher is not really effective and must be change or mix with other methods and innovations, so shat the students feel comfortable and they will have motivation in learning.
There are many method in EFL Teaching, one of them is cooperative learning, in this case the writer will be using cooperative learning by using jigsaw mode, it hopes can give motivation for the students at study English as a foreign language.
One of learning models that is chosen to improve quality learning is jigsaw model. It is chosen as an alternative selection because it is simpler than the other cooperative learning models. It can increase student’s memory by quiz. So that it can be motivated students in learning activity. The implementation of jigsaw model – cooperative learning can give choice for students to interact and cooperate with their friends, increasing teacher and student’s interaction to comprehend difficult concepts.
Hopefully, the implementation of jigsaw model – cooperative learning can be motivated the students for learn English foreign language. The writer wants to do a research about the implementation of jigsaw model – cooperative learning to stimulate the students in English foreign language.
Based on the background above, Cooperative Learning is an appropriate model to be implemented in order to get learning model which is an active, creative, effective, pleasant, and innovative. The researcher wants to know how about the implementation of jigsaw model – cooperative learning in MTS.AL-Intishor, especially in English foreign language because there are problems in learning English foreign language. Jigsaw model– cooperative learning can be an alternative and this model is never done in this school.
1.2 Statement Of The Study
Based on the background of the research, the problems of this study can be stated as follows:
To what extent is the implementation of cooperative learning by using jigsaw model in English foreign language at MTs.AL-Intishor in academic year 2012/2013?
1.3 Objective of the Study
Based on the research problem, the study isto know The implementation of cooperative learning by using jigsaw model in teaching EFL at MTs.AL-Intishor in academic years 2012/2013.
1.4 . Significance of the Study
The result of this study has two aspects, theoretically and practically.
This study is used to clarify all problems related to foreign language. Teacher helps with current theory and provides them some empirical evidence about teaching, in this case “cooperative learning” to predict other problem in English foreign language teaching.
This study is used to provide feedback for the English teacher that is, to describe students’ weakness in teaching English, especially in English foreign language achievement, as positive feedback for English to improve their student in teaching learning process.
1.5. Scope and Limitation of the Study
The target of this study is investigating the implementation of cooperative learning by using jigsaw model in English foreign language teaching for second Grade students’ of MTs.AL-Intishor. Furthermore, this study attempts to describe cooperative learning by using jigsaw model in teaching English foreign language. Where the scope and limitation of the study to the population and sample. In this study, the population of the study includes all eight Grade students of MTs.AL-Intishor in the school year 2012/2013. There are as the population and for observation the samples are only 22 students consist of 1 classes in MTs.AL-Intishor.
1.6.Definition of Key Terms
In order to have concept of the key terms used in this research and to avoid misinterpretation or misunderstanding, the writers should involved in this study are defined as follows:
1.6.1. Cooperative Learningis learning model that use grouping, consist of four until six people who have different ability, gender, race or ethnic (heterogeneous). Value system is done in every group. Every group will get reward if the group is able to look achievement.
1.6.2. Jigsaw model is one model of cooperative learning, what its execution technique is started from group forming compiled by instructor, so that/ to be promiscuous student of just popular friend it, become in character heterogen. each of group member given by the duty to learn the items . then to group delegation come in contact with the other group delegation, they learn the items with. Hereinafter, student will return into its origin group (Alma, 2009:84).
1.6.3. EFLT (English Foreign language teaching) is a widely-used teacher-centred term, as in the English language teaching divisions of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. The abbreviations TESL (teaching English as a second language), TESOL (teaching English for speakers of other languages) and TEFL(teaching English as a foreign language) are all also used.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Teaching and Learning English As A Foreign Language
In this section, the writer will explain many think about theory of the teaching and learning process of English. It includes the theory of foreign language learning and teaching.
2.1.1 Foreign Language Learning And Teaching
Learning a foreign language is not as easy as learning a native language. In learning a foreign language, the learner may meet all kinds of learning problems detailing with vocabulary, sound system, and how to arrange the words into sentences that are quite different from those native language. In line with this, ramelan ( 1994: 4 ) sates :
“if someone wants to learn a foreign language, he will obviously meet with all kinds of learning problems. The difficulties have to do with The learning of new vocabulary items, and the learning of unfamiliar Ways of arranging the foreign words into sentences”.
Like any other learner of English foreign language teaching, Indonesian learners also meet difficulties in learning English since their native language is quite different from English. Learning a language which is quite different from native language is very difficult for Indonesian learners. Consequently, the learner should have a great motivation. They should be seriously in learning English because learning language actually needs one new method that used for teaching learning process. There are many method in EFL teaching one of them is cooperative learning by using jigsaw model, it can motivation students for study English as foreign language.
In teaching a foreign language, a teacher should have an objective. The common objective of teaching a foreign language is to make learner to be able to communicate by using the using the target language orally and written form. According to borwn ( 2000 : 8 ), teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling, and setting the condition for learning.There are some factors that should be considered before teaching a foreign language such as English. Those factors are “ age, ability, aspiration and need, native language and previous language experience “ ( finoccihiaro, 1974: 14 ). By that statement, it can be concluded that the material which is going to be presented should to be based on the learners’ age, ability, aspiration and need, native language, and previous language experience.
2.2 Definition of Cooperative Learning
Cooperative means working and learning means learning, so learning through joint activities (Alma, 2009: 80). Cooperative learning is a learning model using small groups, work together. The success of this model is highly dependent on the ability of the activity of group members, either individually or in groups (Alma, 2009: 81). As according to Slavin (in Alma, 2009: 81), cooperative learning is a learning model where students learn collaboratively in small groups.
2.2.1 Elements of Cooperative Learning
As we could see clearly from the above literature, active participation instead of passive listening in class distinguished cooperative learning from traditional lecturing. Sharan (1980) referred to this as decentralization of authority and classroom focus. However, it did not imply that the teachers switch their roles with their students: the students as active participant and teachers become passive recipients. It was very important for the teacher to plan and structure the strategy in the classroom. That was, the teachers besides mastering the content knowledge of the discipline they teach, they should also know and put into practice the main features that lead to the success of cooperative learning (Cosio, 1998). In general, there were five major factors that define cooperative learning and to make cooperative learning successful: (1) positive interdependence, (2) individual accountability, (3) quality of group processing, (4) teaching of cooperative skills, and (5) teaching of social skills. Each of these five elements would be discussed in the following sections.
188.8.131.52 Positive Interdependence
Positive interdependence was creating the sense that “we sink or swim together” (Johnson et al). It was a sense of working together for a common goal and caring about each other’s learning. Within cooperative learning situations, students have two responsibilities: 1) learn the assigned material, and 2) ensure that all members of the group learn the assigned material. The technical term for that dual responsibility was positive interdependence (Sharan, 1980). When positive interdependence was clearly understood, it establishes that: (1) Each group member’s efforts were required and indispensable for group success (no “free-riders”); (2) Each group member had a unique contribution to make to the joint effort because of his or her resources and/orrole and task responsibilities (Johnson & Johnson, 1994). There were a number of ways of structuring positive interdependence within a learning group:
a. Positive goal interdependence: Students perceive that they could achieve their learning goals if and only if all the members of their group also attain their goals. The group was united around a common goal—a concrete reason for being. Positive goal interdependence might be structured by informing group members they were responsible for: (1) all members scoring above a specified criterion when tested individually, (2) the overall group score being above a specified criterion, (3) one product successfully completed by the group (Johnson & Johnson, 1994).
b. Role interdependence was structured when each member wasassigned complementary and interconnected roles (such as reader, recorder, checker of understanding, encourager of participation, and elaborator of knowledge) that specify responsibilities that the group needs in order to complete the joint task. Resource interdependence was structured when each member hadonly a portion of the information, materials, or resources necessary for the task to be completed and members’ resources have to be combined in order for the group to achieve its goal.
There were a number of ways of structuring positive interdependence. One way was to have a single group product; another was to assign roles for each student; providing a group reward also fosters positive interdependence. Without positive interdependence, students sometimes fall into the trap of “hitchhiking,” where they let one student did all the work for them or of being “off task” (Cohen, 1994b).
184.108.40.206 Individual Accountability
Individual accountability was the element, which provided for each student believing that it was important for him/her to learn the material. Each team member feels in charge of their own and their teammates’ learning and makes an active contribution to the group. Thus there was no ‘hitchhiking’ or ‘freeloading’ for anyone in a team—everyone contributes (Kagan, 1990).
The teacher must have a way of determining what each individual had learned, as well as what the group had accomplished. There were a number of ways of accomplishing individual accountability; random selection of student papers if each student was doing work within the group, random oral quizzes of students, or written quizzes or examinations at the culmination of the work (Kagan, 1989).
220.127.116.11 Quality of Group Interaction Process
To provide abundant verbal, face-to-face interaction, where learners explain, argue, elaborate, and link current material with what they have learned previously was important in cooperative learning. Face-to-face verbal interaction referred to the physical set up of the group. Students needed to be clustered together in a tight group, facing each other, in order to have the kind of interchange necessary to accomplish the task. Johnson and Johnson (1989) proposed that groups should begin small, when students were just beginning to work together ad develop their skills.
The quality of interaction would depend on a number of factors such as: the grade and frequency in which the students cooperated among themselves in their academic tasks, giving feedback between each other in their learning activities, sharing learning experiences and life experiences, and supporting and engaging among themselves in their feelings and educational expectations. Under this perspective, Johnson & Johnson (1990) and Slavin (1987) stated that placing students
in groups to work together, even under the name of cooperative learning or task structure, did not ensure that they would engage in the kinds of positive interactions that promote learning.
In addition, a positive classroom environment was also associated with the quality of group interaction. The implementation of an appropriate interaction process constitutes a major component that helped to improve the student outcome in many academic and behavioral problems, and helped to establish a greater academic environment in the classroom (Aschettino, 1993).
18.104.22.168 Teaching Interpersonal and Small Group Skills
The teaching of cooperative skills was essential. Placing socially unskilled students in a group and telling them to cooperate did not guarantee that they have the ability to do so effectively (Johnson & Johnson, 1994). Students must learn the task and maintenance skills for the groups to run smoothly. Students might not intuitively know those social skills; therefore, they must be taught explicitly how to cooperate with others. Johnson et al (1990) suggest that the interpersonal and small group skills could be taught through a number of means; first of all, setting a social
Skills goal along with the academic goal lets students know it’s important to the teacher. Secondly, it could be established through role playing, modeling, and discussing the components of particular social skills (Cohen & Tellez, 1994). The teacher’s role in this teaching method was not that of someone who measures the capacities of the students in terms of a final product but in terms of the process. That was, someone who acted a friend, as a coordinator, as a director who guided his/her actors how to perform, and as an advisor in the academic tasks and in the psychosocial and cognitive development of the students (Cowei, Smith, Boulton, & Laver, 1994).
22.214.171.124 Teaching of the Social Skills
It was very important for students to have sufficient social skills, involving an explicit teaching of appropriate leadership, communication, trust and conflict resolution skills so that they could cooperate effectively. Schultz (1999) stated that social skills should be explicitly taught to the students so that students could work among themselves, not only in terms of cooperation but also without hostility and without the teacher’s authority. Under this logic, the scholar said that each student was motivated internally by need for freedom, love, and fun (Schultz, 1999). Johnson and Johnson (1990) also stated that students must be taught these skills and be motivated to use them. If group members lack the interpersonal and small-group skills to cooperate effectively, cooperative learning would not be productive (Johnson & Johnson, 1990).
2.2.2 Principles of Cooperative Learning
Learning Cooperative Learning is one of the learning model that supports contextual learning. Cooperative learning learning systems can be defined as a system of work or cooperative learning principles are arranged in a regular or structured. The principle in question there are four (Sanjaya, 2006: 246), namely:
a. The principle of positive dependence.
Tasks that can be resolved depends on the efforts of each member of the group
b. Individual responsibility.
Duty is a responsibility of every member of the group. The success of each group member is to complete the task.
c. Face to face interaction.
In cooperative learning, it is necessary to a good interaction with each other.
d. Participation and communication.
Learning of cooperative training students to be able to actively participate and communicate
126.96.36.199 Cooperative Learning Objectives
The purpose of cooperative learning, namely:
a. Academic learning outcomes
In cooperative learning although it covers a variety of social goals, as well as improving student achievement or academic tasks.
b. Acceptance of individual differences
Another goal of cooperative learning is widespread acceptance of different people based on race, culture, social class, ability, disability.
c. Development of social skills
Teach students to skilled work together or collaborate. Important social skills for current students have a lot of young people who lack social skills.
d. Benefits of Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning methods (Alma, 2009: 93) has several benefits, namely
1. There was the development of quality self-learners.
2. Students learn to open to each other, trust each other and relax.
3. Learn to exchange ideas in an atmosphere of intimacy.
4. The subject matter can be better understood as students try to discuss
together and solve the problems faced by teachers.
together and solve the problems faced by teachers.
5. To encourage the growth of social responsibility, increase the excitementlearning.
6. The nature of solidarity comes daan openness among students.
7. The development of democratic behavior in the classroom.
8. Improve student achievement
9. Provide students the opportunity to interact actively in group.
2.2.3 Learning Cooperative Learning
Learning Cooperative learning model is one model of learning that support contextual learning. Cooperative Learning teaching system can be defined as a system of work / study groups are structured. Included in this structure are the five basic elements (Johnson & Johnson, 1993), ie positive interdependence, individual responsibility, personal interaction, collaborationskills, and group process.The underlying philosophy of learning Cooperative Learning (mutual aid learning) in education is a "homo homini socius" which stresses that human are social beings.
Cooperative Learning is a teaching and learning strategies that emphasize the attitude or behavior in work or assist in co-operation among the regular structure of the group, which consists of two or more people.
Cooperative learning is one form of learning based on constructivist ideology.
Cooperative learning is one form of learning based on constructivist ideology.
Cooperative learning is a learning strategy with a number of students as members of small groups of different ability levels. In completing the task group, each student group must work together and help each other to understand the subject matter. In cooperative learning, learning is not yet finished if one of your friends in the group has not mastered the subject material.
According to Anita Lie in his book "Cooperative Learning", the Learning Cooperative learning models are not the same as just learning groups, but there are basic elements that distinguish the divisions have been made at random. Roger and David Johnson said that not all the working groups can be considered to Cooperative Learning, for it must be applied to the five elements of the learning model of mutual cooperation, namely:
a. Positive dependence
The success of any business depends heavily on the work of each member. To create an effective working group, teachers need to develop tasks such that each group member must complete the task themselves so that others can achieve their goals.
b. Individual responsibility.
If the task and the pattern of judgments are made according to procedures Learning Cooperative learning models, each student will feel a responsibility to do our best. Effective teachers in cooperative learning model learning to make preparations and arrange tasks so that each group member must carry out its own responsibilities to the next task in the group can be implemented.
c. Advance steps
Cooperative Learning in the learning of each group should be given the opportunity to meet face to face and discuss. Activities of these interactions will provide the learners to form a synergy that benefits all members. The essence of synergy is to appreciate the difference, taking advantage of, and fill the gap.
d. Communications between members.
This element requires that the learners are equipped with skills to communicate, because the success of a group also depends on the willingness of its members to listen to each other and their ability to express their opinion. Communication skills within the group is also a long process. However, this process is a very useful and should be taken to enrich the learning experience and fostering mental and emotional development of students.
e. Evaluation group process.
Teachers need to schedule a special time for the group to evaluate the group process and outcomes in order to further their cooperation can work together more effectively.Sequence of steps according to the behavior of teacher’s cooperative learning model described by Arends (1997) is as shown in the table below jigsaw Technique Measures and Cooperative Learning Syntax Table.
2.2.4 Cooperative Learning Objectives Learning
The purpose of cooperative learning in contrast to the conventional group who apply the system of competition, in which individual success is oriented to the failure of others. While the goal of cooperative learning is creating a situation where individual success is determined or influenced by the success of the group (Slavin, 1994).Cooperative learning model was developed to achieve at least three important learning objectives are summarized by Abraham, et al. (2000), namely:
a. Academic Learning
In cooperative learning although it covers a variety of social goals, as well as improving student achievement or academic tasks more important. Some experts argue that this model is superior in helping students understand difficult concepts. The developers of this model have shown that the model of cooperative reward structures have been able to increase student scores on academic learning and change norms related to learning outcomes. In addition to changing norms associated with the learning, cooperative learning can bring benefits to both the lower group of students and groups who work together on completing academic tasks.
b. Individual Differences
Another goal of cooperative learning model is the widespread acceptance of differentpeople based on race, culture, social class, ability and inability. Cooperative learning provides opportunities for students from various backgrounds and conditions to work with each other depending on academic tasks, and through a cooperative reward structure will learn to respect each other.
c. Social Skills
The third important goal of cooperative learning is to teach students skills in cooperation and collaboration. Social skills, are owned by the students is important because many young people today are lacking in social skills.
d. Model Learning Cooperative Learning Jigsaw Technique
Jigsaw was first developed and tested by Elliot Aronson and friends at the University of Texas, and later adapted by Slavin and friends at John Hopkins University (Arends, 2001). Jigsaw teaching techniques developed by Aronson et. al. as a method of Cooperative Learning. This technique can be used in teaching reading, writing, listening, or speaking. In this technique, the teacher noticed schemata or background of the student experience and help students activate schemata is that the lessons become more meaningful material. In addition, students work with fellow students in an atmosphere of mutual help and have many opportunities to process information and improving communication skills. Jigsaw cooperative learning type is a type of cooperative learning consists of several members in one group responsible for the control of the learning materials and be able to teach the material to other members in the group (Arends, 1997). Type of Jigsaw cooperative learning model is a model of cooperative learning where students learn in small groups of 4-6 people working together heterogeneous and positive interdependence and responsibility for the thoroughness of the subject matter to be learned and deliver such materials to members of the group others (Arends, 1997). Jigsaw is designed to enhance students' sense of responsibility towards their own learning and the learning of others. Students not only learn the material given, but they also must be prepared to provide and teach the material in the other group members. Thus, "students are dependent on each other and must work together cooperatively to study the assigned material" (Lie, A., 1994).
The members of different teams to the same topic meet for discussions (expert team) help each other about the learning topic assigned to them. Then the students were back in the team / group home to explain to other group members about what they have learned earlier in the meeting of the expert team. On the type of Jigsaw cooperative learning models, there is a group home and expert groups. From the group consisting of an umbrella group of students of students with the ability, origin, and family backgrounds are diverse. The group home is a combination of several experts. The expert group is composed of a group of students from different members of the group assigned to study and explore specific topics and completing tasks related to the topic later explained to the members of the group home.
The relationship between the origin and expert groups are described as follows (Arends, 1997).
2.2.5 Characteristics of the Cooperative Learning Model
Cooperative learning is different from other learning strategies. The difference can be seen from the learning process which emphasizes the process of cooperation in group.The purpose to be achieved not only academic ability in terms of mastery of the material, but also there is an element of cooperation for the mastery of the material. The cooperation that is the hallmark of cooperative learning. Cooperative learning can be explained in some perspective the motivation perspective, social perspective, the perspective of cognitive development. Motivational perspective that is an award given to groups that fight each other in the success of group activities. Social perspective through cooperative means each student will help each other in learning because they want all the members of the group wants all members of the group gained success. Perspective of cognitive development by means of interaction among group members can develop the thinking process of student achievement for a variety of information. (Vienna Sanjaya, 2006:242)
Some features of cooperative learning strategies are:
Some features of cooperative learning strategies are:
188.8.131.52 Team learning
Cooperative learning is a learning team. Tim is the place to achieve that goal. Therefore, the team should be able to make every student learn. Each team member must help each other to achieve the learning objectives.
184.108.40.206 Based cooperative management
Management as we know it has four functions, namely,
3. exercising, and
Management functionas planning shows that cooperative learning is implemented in accordance with the plan, through a steps learning is established. For example, what goals should be achieved, how to achieve it, what to use to achieve the goal, and so forth. Management function as an organization, shows that cooperative learning requires careful planning so that the learning process effective. Management function as the implementation shows that cooperative learning is implemented in accordance with the plan, through the learning steps that have been determined. Management functions as a control showed that the cooperative learning success criteria need to be determined either through testing or nontes.
220.127.116.11 Willingness of cooperation
Success is determined by the success of cooperative learning in groups, therefore the principle of unity or cooperation need to be stressed. Skills in collaboration.
Ability of cooperation practiced through activities in the learning activities should be encouraged to learn. Students’ willing and able to interact and communicate with other members.
2.3 Type of Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Model
The term is defined as a saw or a jigsaw puzzle is a jigsaw puzzle. This type of cooperative learning jigsaw patterns of how to work took a saw, the students do an activity to learn by working together with other students achieve a common goal. Type of jigsaw cooperative learning model is a model of cooperative learning that emphasize the student group work in the form of small group. As revealed by the Teti Sobari Lie 1999:73 (2006:25) "type of cooperative learning jigsaw model of cooperative learning is the way students learn in small groups consisting of four to six people are heterogeneous and students work together positive interdependence and responsibility independently ".In a model of cooperative jigsaw, students have many opportunities to express opinions and to process the information obtained thus improving communication skills. Group members are also responsible for the success of the group and the thoroughness of the material being studied and can convey information to other groups. Lei (1994) states that the jigsaw is a type of cooperative learning and flexible. Much research has been done related to the basic cooperative learning jigsaw. Research consistently shows that students who engage in the type of jigsaw cooperative learning models are getting better performance, have better attitudes and more positive towards learning.Jhonson and Jhonson (in Teti Sobari 2006:31) conducted a study whose results indicate that cooperative interactions have positive influences on child development. Positive effects are:
1. Improving learning outcomes
2. Improve memory
3. Can be used to achieve high-level reasoning step.
4. Encouraging the growth of intrinsic motivation
5. Improve human relations a heterogeneous
6. Increase positive attitude towards school children
7. Increase positive attitude towards teachers
8. Improving self-esteem
9. Increase positive social adjustment behavior
10. Increase Life skills worked together.
Type of learning is also known as cooperative jigsaw experts as members of each group are faced with different problems but the problems faced by each group together. Every messenger in different groups and discuss the same matter is referred to as a team of experts tasked with discussing the problems faced. Further results of the discussion was brought to group origin and delivered to the members of the group. Phases of activity type Jigsaw cooperative learning models are as follows:
a. Reading to dig up information. Students acquire topics for reading problems, so getting information from these problems.
b. The expert group discussions. Students who have earned the same topic to see problems in a group or as we say a group of experts to discuss the topic of the issue.
c. Group reports. The expert group back to the origin and explain the results obtained from the expert team discussions
d. Quiz do cover all the topics discussed were issues.
e. Calculation of score groups and determine the award.
The next Stephen, Sikes and Snapp (1978), suggests these steps jigsaw cooperative learning type:
a. Students are grouped into 1-5 member team
b. Each person on the team were given the different material
c. Each person on the team were given the assigned material
d. Members of different teams who have studied the parts / sub meet the same chapter in the new group (the group of experts) to discuss their section.
e. Upon completion of each discussion as a team of expert group members return to the home and took turns teaching their teammates about their section of each control and the other members listened intently.
f. Each team of experts presented the results of discussions
g. The teacher gives evaluation
Cooperative learning is a model that can provide a convenience to teachers to implement the learning process, since the processes or stages that can be implemented in this model of cooperative learning, are the stages that can arouse students' interest in learning, motivated by interesting activities, can foster students' activities and cooperation in developing their own teaching materials with the group so that the objective component, the process of a curriculum easily conveyed. As mentioned Jhonson (in Teti Sobriah 2006:31) the positive effect of cooperative learning are: (1) Improving learning outcomes (2) Improve memory (3) Can be used to achieve high-level reasoning steps (4) Encouraging the growth of intrinsic motivation ( 5) Improve human relationships are heterogeneous (6) Increase positive attitude towards school children (7) Increase in positive attitudes of teachers (8) Improving self-esteem (8) Increase positive behavior and social adjustment (10) Improve life skills worked cooperation.Achievement of the curriculum is synonymous with achievement of learning objectives. Some of the advantages we need to consider, namely:
a. Students are not too dependent on teachers, but can increase confidence in the ability to think for themselves, find information from various sources, and teaching materials from other students.
b. Cooperative learning can develop the ability to express ideas or ideas with words verbally and compare it with other people's ideas.
c. Cooperative learning can help children to respect others and be aware of its limitations and accept all the difference.
d. Cooperative learningHelp to empower each student to take more responsibility in learning.
e. Increase achievement academic as well as social skills.
Some of the advantages of cooperative learning on the grounds carrying a learning model of cooperative learning can beused in the study as one model that can help students learn actively, students can explore and experience the learning that takes place so that the easier it is to understand the teaching materials. Understanding of student learning materials is a way to get good learning results. Good learning outcomes are the expected learning outcomes of an indicator of learning.With the achievement of these objectives were achieved also means that the basic competencies and competency standards expected by the current curriculum, the Education Unit Level Curriculum (SBC). As for relations with the purpose of education curriculum, is / learning materials, learning experiences / education process, and the evaluation was drawn on the chart above.The chart above explains that the curriculum is an important document as the main criterion in implementing the learning process, curriculum development are the components of the curriculum that can not be separated from one another. In there are components of the curriculum objectives, components of the content / learning materials, processes that occur inside a teaching and learning activities, in teaching and learning activities is an interaction of multi-way traffic comunication this interaction occurs through learning models inThis model of cooperative learning, then the next component is the assessment. Assessment as a tool to measure students' skills in learning carried out at the beginning, end and during the process of learning undertaken. Success of the students' understanding of teaching materials through a learning model can be used as a benchmark achievement of educational goals.
The delivery of teaching and learning as interaction is a process in order to achieve the goal of learning, teachers consciously trying to set up a learning environment for students to be passionate. One way to encourage student selection method / model helped determine, such as cooperative learningmodel, as described "one of the businesses that never left the position of teachers is how to understand the methods and models as one of the components that take part to the success of learning teaching. Such a frame of mind is the real thing and really thought out by teachers "(Syaiful Bahri Djamarah, 2006:82). Cooperative learning can provide a significant contribution in the development of curriculum, the achievement of learning objectives that are expected to be easily achieved through the study of cooperative learning in various subjects. Natural Science is one subject that can use cooperative learning as a learning model that generates a model of motivation, raises a good cooperation, students explore the material itself and the experiencing of learning with fun and motivated. so that students can be active in the learningCooperative learning can enable students is very meaningful, because as described "in principle to learn is to do. do to change behavior, so do the activities. There is no learning if there is no activity "(Sardiman, 2007:95) which is why the activity is an important principle in the interaction teaching and learning, cooperative learning in further highlight the activities of students, the learning material to dig through the skills of students. By developing the skills of students in learning, children will be able to discover and develop their own facts and concepts as well as foster and develop an attitude of learning. "It becomes a cog skills of discovery and development of facts and concepts as well as the growth and development of the attitude of the value in teaching and learning that foster active student learning" (Conny Semiawan 1987:18). Cooperative Learning in the application of models students actively prosecuted. These activities will be seen from the individual skills of students in learning activities. Student's skills in interacting with members of the group can motivate students so actively in the learning process.
2.3.1 The steps in the implementation of the Jigsaw technique
The teacher divides the class into groups, with each group consisting of 4-6 students with different abilities. This group is called the origin. The number of members in a group home match the amount of material students are learning lessons that will suit the learning objectives to be achieved. In this type of Jigsaw, each student is given the task of studying one part of the learning material. All students with similar learning materials to learn together in groups called expert groups (Counterpart Group / CG). In the expert groups, students discuss the same learning materials, and making plans how to tell if returned to his home group. This original group by Aronson called the Jigsaw (sawtooth). For example a class with 40 students and learning materials that will be achieved in accordance with the purpose of learning consists of five sections of learning material, then from 40 students will have five-member expert group 8 and 8 students from the group consisting of 5 students. Each member of the expert group will return to the origin gives the information has been obtained or learned in a group of experts. Teachers facilitate discussion groups on both the existing expert groups and home group.
2.4 Previous Study
Eko Yulianto (2011) under titleIMPLEMENTATION OFCOOPERATIVE LEARNING BY USING JIGSAW MODEL FOR MOTIVATION AND RESULTS TO IMPROVE STUDENT LEARNING SUBJECT OF CELL BIOLOGY CLASS XI 3 SMA ISLAM SLEMAN in his reserach The study was undertaken to improve student motivation and learning outcomes by implementing the jigsaw model of cooperative learning in the learning process of high school biology class XI IPA 3 ISLAM Sleman on the material of cells and tissues. Students who are less active influence on learning outcomes is lacking. Among others, can be seen on the daily tests and worksheets that students are lacking. To overcome these problems the research class action that seeks to improve the learning process is still not, this learning process using a cooperative approach (Cooperatif Learning) jigsaw model. By learning jigsaw model of cooperative approach is expected to improve student motivation and learning outcomes. This study is a type of Classroom Action Research (Classroom Action Research) refers to the jigsaw model of cooperative learning is implemented in three cycles. In principle, intended to solve a problem or improve the learning in the classroom. This class action research takes the form of collaborative action research, researchers collaborate with subject teachers of biology into one team. The approach used in this study is a qualitative approach in which the retrieval of data is done naturally and the data obtained are in the form of words and images. Instruments used include: LKS, observation sheets, questionnaires, documentation, pretest and posttest, and interview. Data collection techniques include: observation, planning, action, monitoring, and reflection. Data analysis technique used was a descriptive qualitative data analysis. Of this study obtained results that showed an increase in student motivation and learning outcomes, especially in class XI 3 SMA Islam Lahore academic year 2009/2010. Improved learning outcomes seen in the average post-test at the 6.16 cycle I increased to 7.28 in the second cycle, so the effect size obtained was 1.12. While the observed increase motivation through a questionnaire sheet increased by 71% in cycle I to 79.4% in cycle II. Thus the study of biology by using a jigsaw model of cooperative approach can improve motivation and learning outcomes, especially in high school biology Sleman Islam 3.
Sobirin ( 2006 ) under title EFFORTS TO IMPROVE STUDENT LEARNING OF STATE CLASS 3F 2 SMP Adiwerna TEGAL DISTRICT IN THE FORM OF OPERATIONS Highlights ALGEBRA THROUGH COOPERATIVE LEARNING BY USING JIGSAW MODEL In his research Highlights of Operations in Algebra Shape Model Learning Through Cooperative Learning Jigsaw type" Based on observation and experience of teaching mathematics teacher at Junior High School 2 Adiwerna Tegal regency in operations subject on the algebra of the average value of the new test reached 5.3 and they learn to reach 50% completeness. Based on the emerging problems of how to improve student learning outcomes in a subject in the form of algebraic operations, in order to obtain better results. This class action research generally aims to improve students' classroom 3F SMP Negeri 2 Adiwerna Tegal regency in the subject in the form of algebraic operations, to improve student learning activities and acquire the right way and effective way of implementing cooperative learning teaching model of the type of jigsaw . This class action research method was implemented in three cycles. Each cycle there are four stages of the planning, implementation actions, observations, as well as analysis and reflection. In a cycle of action research carried out with a model of learning and cooperative learning jigsaw type ends with the provision of formative tests each end of the cycle. Benchmark for the success of this action research where student learning outcomes for an average of at least 6.5 in the classical style and thoroughness when the student reaches a minimum of 85% results were obtained after a class action in the subject of the operation on the algebra of learning through cooperative learning model type jigsaw for the class 3F increase learning outcomes, and the average class value reached 7.02, with the percentage of completeness I learned to cycle only reached 66%, making it necessary remedial action at the second cycle. Based on the observation of an increase in learning outcomes in the second cycle, the average value of 7.34 with the percentage of classroom learning to achieve 76% completeness. These results need to be improved again in the cycle III is by obtaining the average value of 7.70 with a percentage grade learn 91% completeness. These results have been considered sufficient because it meets the specified criterion of achieving a minimum average of 6.5 with 85% completeness classical learning. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the model of learning through cooperative learning jigsaw type 3F-class student learning outcomes in subjects in the form of algebraic operations increases. It is therefore recommended that teachers should use a cooperative learning model as an alternative learning jigsaw type in the subject in the form of algebraic operations.
Based on both of the researchers above, the implementation of cooperative learning by using jigsaw model can be used to help the teacher and students in teaching and learning process. Likewise, the writer want to investigate To what extent is the implementation of cooperative learning by using jigsaw model in English foreign language at MTs.AL-Intishor in academic years 2012/2013.
3.1 Research Design
This study adopts qualitative research method. It is qualitative as the researcher is the primary instrument for gathering and analyzing data (Merriam, 1998: 20; Alwasilah, 2008: 78 ). It captures process of understanding a social or human problem, based on building complex, holistic picture, formed with words, reporting detailed views of informants, and conducted in natural setting to its subject matter ( Cressweell, 1994; Denzin And Lincoln, 1994 ). The researcher use a case study as an ideal design to understand a particular phenomenon particularly to investigate the implementation of cooperative learning by using jigsaw model provided by teacher in EFL.
3.2 Population and sample
Population is representing entire/all subject research. Nawawi (2003) in Iskandar (2009: 118) population is grand total of subject research which can be consisted of by the human being, object, animal, flora, and symptom, assess the test or event as data source owning certain characteristic in a research. While according to Sudjana ( 2005 : 74) population is totality of all value which possible, result of counting/calculating or measurement, quantitative and also qualitative hit the certain characteristic from all clear and complete corps member is which wish learned by the nature. Population is the number of people or individual that has at least the same characteristics (Hadi, 1984). In this study, the researcher took all of population as sample, by the total number is 22 students consist of 1 class in MTs.AL-Intishor in academic year 2012/2013.
Sample is some of amount and characteristic owned by population, Sugiyono(2003: 56). The participant of the study is one English teacher and all second grade of MTs.AL-Intishor, where there are 22 students consist of 1 class and in this research writer using random sample.
3.3 Data Collection Procedures
The technique of collecting the data the writer use two type of collecting the data, whicharea:
The technique of data collection used in this study is classroom observation. A non-participant classroom observation will be conducted by the researcher. The researcher observed someone behavior in natural condition, but the writer did not do participation to the activity in observed environment.According to Moleong (2005:176) that, non-participant observation is useful because it had been well-planned in choosing condition of data had from observing condition. In this observation, The researcher take notes on what is said and done by the teacher and students during the class activity. The classroom observation will be conducted in all stage of teaching speaking. Video-taping is carried out to obtain a clear picture of the activity.
Arikunto (1998) defines interview as dialogue acted by interviewer in order to gain information from interviewer. Moleong in hafizoh (2004) argue the interview is conversation with current point. Interview aims to know the students’ interest in oral reason to learn speaking English and know how the teacher motivates their students in the class to learn speaking English.
In research, the writer used semi - structured interview as one of the technique for collecting data in oral form to get information directly. The interviews will be conducted in Bahasa Indonesia which is intended to obtain clear understanding of what is uttered by both researcher and participants.
3. Field notes
In research, field notes are used to observe and to know the situation and the activities during the teaching and learning process, such as how the teachers carry out the material and the students’ response .( Emerson, 1995: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/fieldnotes )
3.4 Data Analysis Procedures
There two technique of data analysis used by researcher.
In analyzing the data classroom observation the researcher will be watching the video recoding of the lesson for many time. The researcher will be transcribing all observation notes which are take during the teaching and learning process. Then data are coded and categorized based on each theme.
In analyzing of data semi – structured interview, the researcher will analyze the sum of participants’ answer. Then answers are coded and categorized based on each theme.
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